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Education Development in China\'s West: . Policies and Projects. Halsey L. Beemer, Jr. Human Development Sector Unit East Asia Pacific Region. Background. China’s National Compulsory Education Program Western Development Program and Education Strategy

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policies and projects
Policies and Projects
  • Halsey L. Beemer, Jr.
  • Human Development Sector Unit
  • East Asia Pacific Region
background
Background
  • China’s National Compulsory Education Program
  • Western Development Program and Education Strategy
  • World Bank and Compulsory Education in Western China
china s national compulsory education programs ncep
China’s National Compulsory Education Programs (NCEP)
  • universalization of compulsory education to raise productivity and rural incomes
  • Focused on 592 National Poor Counties
  • Phase One 1995-2000, Phase Two 2000-2005
  • grants, not loans - counterpart necessary
ncep some statistics
NCEP - Some Statistics
  • 1998 National Data
    • 1.4 million children did not enroll
    • 1.3 million dropped out of primary
    • 1.67 million dropped out of junior secondary
    • 40-50% stated family financial difficulties as reason
ncep phase i 1995 2000
NCEP - Phase I - 1995-2000
  • Targeted on region two - middle provinces
  • RMBY 10 billion (USD 1.22 billion) 40:60 National:Provincial
  • Focus on solving classroom shortages
  • Some classroom equipment, short term teacher training
  • Met 15-20% of development need
ncep phase ii 2000 05
NCEP - Phase II - 2000-05
  • Targeted on region three - western and south western provinces
  • Introduction of student assistance programs, distance education, curriculum reform
  • RMBY 10 billion - 40:60 National:Provincial
  • Expected to meet 15-20% of need
  • Funding gap of RMBY 67 Billion (US$ 8.2 billion)
great western development project
Great Western Development Project
  • One quarter of China’s population, but more than one half of land
  • More than half of China’s 80 million poor live in West
  • Farm income is less than a third of coastal rural China
  • 2 million children fail to complete five years of school annually
goals for western development program
Goals for Western Development Program
  • Three-four years of school in poorest areas by 2000
  • Six years by 2005 and nine by 2010 overall
  • Targeted funds - RMBY 5.0 billion for civil works, teacher training and minority education
  • Lack of resources greatest issue - RMBY 29 billion shortfall
bank projects in western china
Bank Projects in Western China
  • Four basic education projects in every province but Tibet
  • increase access, girls’ education, principal/teacher training
  • Student assistance programs based on research results
  • Innovation programs to attack local problems
  • Minority texts, local language of instruction, distance education
human development policies for western china
Human Development Policies for Western China
  • 1. Strengthen 9 Year Compulsory Education by increasing funding
  • 2. Continue Hand-in-Hand, City-to-City, etc. programs
  • 3. Build Distance Education
  • 4. Raise quality of principals and teachers
  • 5. Strengthen higher education development
human development policies con d
Human Development Policies (Con’d)
  • 6. Increase special classes for Qinghai, Xinjiang and Tibet
  • 7. Absorb higher quality manpower
  • 8. Increase university research capability
  • 9. Strengthen/enhance high level education management
  • 10. Place Western Area Human Development in 10/5 plan
basic education in western areas project
Basic Education in Western Areas Project
  • Joint Chinese - UK Governments and World Bank Project
  • Strong poverty focus - townships rather than counties
  • School and community based education pilots
  • Strong cost reduction/student assistance strategy
  • Provincial analysis and planning
targeting a project
Targeting a Project
  • National goals vs. educ. outcomes
  • Geo. coverage vs. project focus
  • Investment inputs vs. project outcomes
  • National formulae vs. local demand
  • MOE data vs. other data
  • Assumptions vs. research results
  • Sample data vs. social analysis
summary
Summary
  • Bank supports China’s goals of achieving UBE
  • Research informs targeting and project design
  • Bank project design informed NCEP programs
  • Poverty focus led to student assistance programs
  • Success in earlier Western area projects encourage repeats
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