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Education Development in China's West: . Policies and Projects. Halsey L. Beemer, Jr. Human Development Sector Unit East Asia Pacific Region. Background. China’s National Compulsory Education Program Western Development Program and Education Strategy

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Policies and projects
Policies and Projects

  • Halsey L. Beemer, Jr.

  • Human Development Sector Unit

  • East Asia Pacific Region


Background
Background

  • China’s National Compulsory Education Program

  • Western Development Program and Education Strategy

  • World Bank and Compulsory Education in Western China


China s national compulsory education programs ncep
China’s National Compulsory Education Programs (NCEP)

  • universalization of compulsory education to raise productivity and rural incomes

  • Focused on 592 National Poor Counties

  • Phase One 1995-2000, Phase Two 2000-2005

  • grants, not loans - counterpart necessary


Ncep some statistics
NCEP - Some Statistics

  • 1998 National Data

    • 1.4 million children did not enroll

    • 1.3 million dropped out of primary

    • 1.67 million dropped out of junior secondary

    • 40-50% stated family financial difficulties as reason


Ncep phase i 1995 2000
NCEP - Phase I - 1995-2000

  • Targeted on region two - middle provinces

  • RMBY 10 billion (USD 1.22 billion) 40:60 National:Provincial

  • Focus on solving classroom shortages

  • Some classroom equipment, short term teacher training

  • Met 15-20% of development need


Ncep phase ii 2000 05
NCEP - Phase II - 2000-05

  • Targeted on region three - western and south western provinces

  • Introduction of student assistance programs, distance education, curriculum reform

  • RMBY 10 billion - 40:60 National:Provincial

  • Expected to meet 15-20% of need

  • Funding gap of RMBY 67 Billion (US$ 8.2 billion)


Great western development project
Great Western Development Project

  • One quarter of China’s population, but more than one half of land

  • More than half of China’s 80 million poor live in West

  • Farm income is less than a third of coastal rural China

  • 2 million children fail to complete five years of school annually


Goals for western development program
Goals for Western Development Program

  • Three-four years of school in poorest areas by 2000

  • Six years by 2005 and nine by 2010 overall

  • Targeted funds - RMBY 5.0 billion for civil works, teacher training and minority education

  • Lack of resources greatest issue - RMBY 29 billion shortfall


Bank projects in western china
Bank Projects in Western China

  • Four basic education projects in every province but Tibet

  • increase access, girls’ education, principal/teacher training

  • Student assistance programs based on research results

  • Innovation programs to attack local problems

  • Minority texts, local language of instruction, distance education


Human development policies for western china
Human Development Policies for Western China

  • 1. Strengthen 9 Year Compulsory Education by increasing funding

  • 2. Continue Hand-in-Hand, City-to-City, etc. programs

  • 3. Build Distance Education

  • 4. Raise quality of principals and teachers

  • 5. Strengthen higher education development


Human development policies con d
Human Development Policies (Con’d)

  • 6. Increase special classes for Qinghai, Xinjiang and Tibet

  • 7. Absorb higher quality manpower

  • 8. Increase university research capability

  • 9. Strengthen/enhance high level education management

  • 10. Place Western Area Human Development in 10/5 plan


Basic education in western areas project
Basic Education in Western Areas Project

  • Joint Chinese - UK Governments and World Bank Project

  • Strong poverty focus - townships rather than counties

  • School and community based education pilots

  • Strong cost reduction/student assistance strategy

  • Provincial analysis and planning


Targeting a project
Targeting a Project

  • National goals vs. educ. outcomes

  • Geo. coverage vs. project focus

  • Investment inputs vs. project outcomes

  • National formulae vs. local demand

  • MOE data vs. other data

  • Assumptions vs. research results

  • Sample data vs. social analysis


Summary
Summary

  • Bank supports China’s goals of achieving UBE

  • Research informs targeting and project design

  • Bank project design informed NCEP programs

  • Poverty focus led to student assistance programs

  • Success in earlier Western area projects encourage repeats


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