How did African nationalism influence the years after decolonisation?
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How did African nationalism influence the years after decolonisation? C aim – to explain and begin to analyse how African nationalism influenced early independence B/A aim – to analyse varying ways that African nationalism influenced the years after decolonisation.

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How did African nationalism influence the years after decolonisation?C aim – to explain and begin to analyse how African nationalism influenced early independenceB/A aim – to analyse varying ways that African nationalism influenced the years after decolonisation

  • What other events could you say caused African nationalism?

  • What other gradual changes could you say caused African nationalism?

  • Significant people?

  • Can you think of any others?

Nkrumah argued ‘the independence of Ghana would be meaningless unless it was tied to the total liberation of Africa’. Why did he say this?



Pick a book title (not your own) and justify why it would be called this. What other causes would you add to it?


African socialism called this. What other causes would you add to it? is a belief in sharing economic resources in a "traditional" African way, as distinct from classical socialism. Many African politicians of the 1950s and 1960s professed their support for African socialism, although definitions and interpretations of this term varied considerably. This is because African socialism has not been the product of one single thinker. One example of a definition of African socialism was phrased as a metaphor by de Graft Johnson, from the University of Ghana in 1962.His definition of African socialism was that “the principle of the State as a father, which is the basis of socialism, is what we have here in our clans or tribes which are in fact extended families. In our society, the collective wealth of the extended family is used for the welfare of the family as a whole. The extended families take on the functions of social insurance, and if a member of the family falls into debt, all the others help him to pay it; if he is ill, they look after him; if there is a bright boy in the family whom the immediate parents cannot afford to educate, the others help in educating him. Property, especially land, often belongs to the whole extended family. There are abuses in the extended family system, but its basic pattern, when enlarged to embrace the state, is virtually what is meant by socialism.”

As many African countries gained independence during the 1960s, some of these newly formed governments rejected the ideas of capitalism in favour of a more afrocentric economic model. Advocates of African socialism claimed that it was not the opposite of capitalism nor a response to it, but something completely different.

Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Léopold Senghor of Senegal, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Sékou Touré of Guinea, were the main architects of African Socialism.

Common principles of various versions of African socialism were: economic development guided by a large public sector, incorporating the African identity and what it means to be African, and the avoidance of the development of social classes within society.Senghor claimed that “Africa’s social background of tribal community life not only makes socialism natural to Africa but excludes the validity of the theory of class struggle,” thus making African socialism, in all of its variations, different from Marxism and European socialist theory .

What positive impacts would African socialism have on early independence? What problems might it cause?


The OAU had the following primary aims: called this. What other causes would you add to it?

A Liberation Committee was established to aid independence movements and look after the interests of already-liberated states. The OAU also aimed to stay neutral in terms of global politics, which would prevent them from being controlled once more by outside forces – an especial danger with the Cold War.

The OAU had other aims, too:

Soon after achieving independence, a number of African states expressed a growing desire for more unity within the continent. Not everyone was agreed on how this unity could be achieved, however, and two opinionated groups emerged in this respect:

Some of the initial discussions took place at Sanniquellie, Liberia. The dispute was eventually resolved when Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I invited the two groups to Addis Ababa, where the OAU and its headquarters were subsequently established. The Charter of the Organisation was signed by 32 independent African states.

At the time of the OAU's disbanding, 53 out of the 54 African states were members; Morocco left on 12 November 1984 following the admission of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic as the government of Western Sahara in 1982.

The organisation was widely derided as a bureaucratic "talking shop" with little power. It struggled to enforce its decisions, and its lack of armed force made intervention exceedingly difficult. Civil wars in Nigeria and Angola continued unabated for years, and the OAU could do nothing to stop them.

The policy of non-interference in the affairs of member states also limited the effectiveness of the OAU. Thus, when human rights were violated, as in Uganda under Idi Amin in the 1970s, the OAU was powerless to stop them.

The Organisation was praised by Ghanaian former United Nations Secretary-GeneralKofi Annan for bringing Africans together. Nevertheless, in its 39 years of existence, critics argue that the OAU did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders, often dubbing it as a "Dictators' Club“or "Dictator's Trade Union".

Whose ideas did the Organisation of African Unity come from?

What were the positive impacts of the Organisation of African Unity?

What were the negative impacts?


How did African nationalism influence the years after decolonisation?C aim – to explain and begin to analyse how African nationalism influenced early independenceB/A aim – to analyse varying ways that African nationalism influenced the years after decolonisation

Nigeria

In 1960 Nigeria gained independence under a coalition of conservative parties – the Nigerian People’s Congress (mainly Northern and Islamic) and the National Council of Nigeria and the Cmaeroons (Mainly Eastern, igbo and christian). The opposition was Yoruba, mainly from the West. Back to back military coups occurred by 1966. Then violence occurred in the North, mainly against those of Igbo descent. This led to the Igbo wanting independence. From 1967-1970 there was a Civil War between the Eastern Igbo and the Northerners Islamics and Western Yoruba. 1-3 million people died, mainly Igbo.

Ghana

The CPP and Nkrumah made sure they had power centrally. A deportation act was passed in 1957 and all ethnic, religious and regional parties were banned. This was in an effort to keep Ghana together but had dangerous consequences. By 1958 the Preventive Detention Act gave the PM power to detain individuals up to five years without a trial. Opposition parties were stamped out and in 1960 Nkrumah became president for life. Nkrumah wanted rapid modernisation for Ghana to help it resist the damages of colonialism – however it got into huge debts quickly as a result. In 1966 Nkrumah was overthrown.


How did African nationalism influence the years after decolonisation?C aim – to explain and begin to analyse how African nationalism influenced early independenceB/A aim – to analyse varying ways that African nationalism influenced the years after decolonisation

How did African nationalism influence early independence?

What were the most significant ways it influenced early independence and why?

Include as many ways as you can in your answer.

Did Africans bring about their own independence?


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