Energy and ecology
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Energy and Ecology. Ecosystem Components. Producers Basis of an ecosystem’s energy Autotrophs: perform photosynthesis to make sugars Chemotrophs: Bacteria which use minerals from deep-sea vents to make energy Consumers Heterotrophs: Consumes others for energy

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Energy and Ecology

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Energy and ecology

Energy and Ecology


Ecosystem components

Ecosystem Components

  • Producers

    • Basis of an ecosystem’s energy

    • Autotrophs: perform photosynthesis to make sugars

    • Chemotrophs: Bacteria which use minerals from deep-sea vents to make energy

  • Consumers

    • Heterotrophs: Consumes others for energy

    • Omnivores, herbivores, carnivores, decomposers, detritivores


Energy and ecology

Trophic

Levels

4.5897 kcal

  • Defined: Feeding level of an ecosystem

  • Trophic levels consist of producers, consumers, and decomposers

  • ~10% of energy is passed to the next level

    • ~90% used by the organism

    • Few trophic levels

45.897 kcal

458.97 kcal

4589.7 kcal

45,897 kcal


Energy and ecology

Food Chains

  • 5th trophic level = Quaternary consumers

  • Feed on Tertiary consumers

  • Omnivores and carnivores

  • 4th trophic level = Tertiary consumers

  • Feed on secondary consumers

  • Omnivores and carnivores

  • 3rd trophic level = Secondary consumers

  • Feed on primary consumers

  • Omnivores and carnivores

  • 2nd trophic level = Primary consumers

  • Feed on producers

  • Herbivores (plant eaters)

  • 1st trophic level = Producers

  • Autotrophs (perform photosynthesis)

  • Bottom of food chain

  • Ex: Plants, algae, cyanobacteria


Energy and ecology

Decomposers

  • Decomposers: Absorb nutrients

    • Also return nutrients to soil

    • EX: Fungi, Bacteria

  • Detritivores: Feed & consume dead matter

    • Ex: vultures, millipedes


What s wrong with this picture

What’s wrong with this picture?

The arrows are pointing the wrong direction.


Energy and ecology

Food

Webs

  • Defined: Group of interrelated food chains

  • Arrows show direction energy (nutrients) travel


Energy and ecology

Highlight a food chain from this food web. Then label each trophic level.

Tertiary consumer

Secondary consumer

Primary consumer

producer


Energy and ecology

Highlight a food chain from this food web. Then label each trophic level.

Quaternary consumer

Tertiary consumer

Secondary consumer

Primary consumer

producer


Kobe kuiz

Kobe Kuiz

  • How many trophic levels are in the following food chain?

    Apple tree  Worms  Blue Jay  Owl

  • If the tree in the example above makes 15,000 calories of energy from photosynthesis, how much energy is available for each other trophic level?

  • In the food chain above, which is the producer?

  • In the food chain above, which is the primary consumer?

  • In the food chain above, which is the tertiary consumer?

  • Which level consumer are herbivores known as?

  • What is the lowest consumer level possible for a carnivore?

  • Examine the food web on slide #10. Find a complete food chain that is 6 trophic levels from start to finish.


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