World war i section 1 the seeds of war
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World War I Section #1—The Seeds of War. Chris Anderson Randolph-Henry High School. The Congress of Vienna had created a relative peace in Europe that lasted almost 100 years Many in Europe believed that a major war would never occur in Europe again

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World War I Section #1—The Seeds of War

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World war i section 1 the seeds of war

World War ISection #1—The Seeds of War

Chris Anderson

Randolph-Henry High School


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • The Congress of Vienna had created a relative peace in Europe that lasted almost 100 years

  • Many in Europe believed that a major war would never occur in Europe again

  • Social reforms and new scientific advances made many people believe that Europeans had outgrown war


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • By the late 1800s, this European peace began to show signs of strain

  • Four (4) main characteristics started to develop in many of the European nations

    • 1.) Nationalism

    • 2.) Imperialism

    • 3.) Militarism

    • 4.) Alliances

  • By 1914, Europe was a “tinderbox waiting for the spark to make it explode”


Nationalism

Nationalism

  • This created many tensions between European nations

  • People were willing to sacrifice anything for their homeland, even their own lives

  • This nationalism would lead many people to fight for very vague objectives

  • Nationalism also divided many nations, especially those nations with a diverse ethnic make-up


Imperialism

Imperialism

  • Different European nations attempted to create overseas empires

  • The major nations scrambling for land:

    • Germany

    • Belgium

    • Italy

    • France

    • Great Britain


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions

  • European economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms

  • Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries

  • Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influences


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • Forms of imperialism

    • Colonies

    • Protectorates

      • Independent area (usually) under the protection of another nation

    • Spheres of influence

      • An area that is under the influence of another nation


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • Imperialism in Africa and Asia

    • European domination

    • European conflicts carried to the colonies

    • Christian missionary efforts

    • Spheres of influence in China

    • Suez Canal—controlled by Great Britain

    • East India Company’s (GB) domination of Indian states

    • America’s opening of Japan to trade


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • Responses of colonized peoples

  • Armed conflicts (e.g., events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China)

  • Rise of nationalism (e.g., first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s)


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • 1905: a problem arose over a little area called Morocco

    • France began taking steps to add Morocco to its list of possessions

    • Germany also had interests in Morocco and opposed France’s actions

    • Germany asked for a conference on the issue

    • Great Britain acted as mediator

    • The final result: Morocco would stay independent but have French influence


Militarism

Militarism

  • In order to back up their imperialistic goals, many nations believed they needed a strong military presence

  • Militaries began actually having political influence over many nations

  • The most evident example of militarism can be seen in Germany

    • by 1900, Germany had the most powerful weapons and the best military in Europe

    • Germany had already created a very strong navy in the 1890s; an attempt to outdo Great Britain


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • Great Britain attempted to match Germany’s naval buildup in the 1890s and 1900s, causing more tensions to grow between the 2 nations

  • More and more nations began joining in on the arms race between Germany and Great Britain

  • France began to develop a strong military

  • Russia began to increase the size of its military


Alliances

Alliances

  • European nations began creating alliances in an attempt to protect themselves

  • 1879: Bismarck created the Dual Alliance

    • A pact between Germany and Austria-Hungary

  • 1882: Italy was added as a member of the alliance to create the Triple Alliance

    • Italy

    • Germany

    • Austria-Hungary


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • Bismarck created the alliances for 2 main reasons

    • 1.) To avoid a 2-front war

    • 2.) To keep France weak and unable to revenge its loss in the Franco-Prussian War


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • France wanted to make alliances against Bismarck

  • 1894: France made an alliance with Russia, both agreeing to help each other if either were attacked by the Triple Alliance

  • 1904: France and Great Britain make an agreement to end hostilities against each other (entente)

  • 1907: Great Britain and Russia sign an entente

  • By 1907, Great Britain, France, and Russia were together in an alliance called the Triple Entente—designed to counterbalance the Triple Alliance


World war i section 1 the seeds of war

  • By 1907, two very distinct sides were emerging in Europe

  • These alliances would prove to be very dangerous for both sides


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