Rough drafts
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Rough drafts. Making the something before the something. So what’s a rough draft?. Your rough draft is your first attempt at putting your thoughts into final form. You aren’t creating the final piece of writing in this step.

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Rough drafts

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Rough drafts

Rough drafts

Making the something before the something

So what s a rough draft

So what’s a rough draft?

  • Your rough draft is your first attempt at putting your thoughts into final form. You aren’t creating the final piece of writing in this step.

  • Think about painting a wall. You don’t put on one coat of paint and call it done. Instead, you start with a coat or two of primer. Then you put on a couple coats of the final color. You certainly wouldn’t put on the primer and the final color at the same time. That would defeat the purpose.

  • Writing a rough draft is very similar. Your first draft is like the first coat of paint. You have to get that down before you can add the subsequent coats in revision.

So what s a rough draft1

So what’s a rough draft

  • Sometimes, though not always, your rough draft will be pretty bad. It won’t sound right; it will have grammar mistakes; some parts won’t make any sense and others will be off-topic. It’s important to realize that that’s okay. You can fix all these problems in revision. The important thing in writing a rough draft is just to get the ideas down as best you can. Here are some ways to do that.

Writing a rough draft

Writing a rough draft

  • First: This lesson assumes that, when you are writing a rough draft, you’ve already gone through Pre-Writing.

  • The first step is simply to go over what you’ve done in your pre-writing. No matter what strategy you used for pre-writing, you should have come up with something that will guide you through the rest of your paper. With luck, it’s already in order so you don’t even have to think about that part.

  • Look over your pre-writing and see what you need to do. If you’ve fully completed the process, you should have what should amount to a map for your rough draft!

Writing a rough draft intros

Writing a rough draft - intros

  • Begin with your introduction.

  • Remember, what you need in an introduction:

    • Your thesis (main idea)

    • Your reasons

    • Something to draw in the reader

    • A way to let your reader know exactly what they’re going to read

Writing a rough draft body

Writing a rough draft - body

  • Next you want to begin crafting your body paragraphs. Remember these easy-to-forget tips so that you can craft a great paper:

    • Each paragraph needs its own topic sentence. Each paragraph should be about something different (your reasons for supporting your argument, for instance).

    • Try to transition sentences at the end of paragraphs to the beginning of the next.

    • Avoid one/two sentence paragraphs.If you can’t do more than that, you might not have a well-developed topic.

    • Stay focused. Don’t talk about your cousin’s pet fish in an essay that’s not about that.



  • Addition:also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly

  • When there is a trusting relationship coupled with positive reinforcement, the partners will be able to overcome difficult situations.

  • Consequence:accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, wherefore

  • Highway traffic came to a stop as a result of an accident that morning.

  • Contrast and Comparison:contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise,on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather,similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast

  • The children were very happy. On the other hand, and perhaps more importantly, their parents were very proactive in providing good care.



  • Direction:here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above,to the left, to the right, in the distance

  • She scanned the horizon for any sign though in the distance she could not see the surprise coming her way.

  • Emphasis:above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly

  • The Quakers gathered each month with attention to deciding the business of their Meeting.

  • Exception:aside from, barring, beside, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of, save

  • Consensus was arrived at by all of the members exclusive of those who could not vote.



  • Exemplifying:chiefly, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely, particularly, including, specifically, such as

  • Some friends and I drove up the beautiful coast chiefly to avoid the heat island of the city.

  • Generalizing:as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually

  • There were a few very talented artists in the class, but for the most part the students only wanted to avoid the alternative course.

  • Illustration:for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this case

  • The chapter provided complex sequences and examples illustrated with a very simple schematic diagram.



  • Restatement:in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently

  • In their advertising business, saying things directly was not the rule. That is to say, they tried to convey the message subtly though with creativity.

  • Sequence:at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time,for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on,meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier,simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind,

  • The music had a very retro sound but at the same time incorporated a complex modern rhythm.

  • Summarizing:after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance, to sum up, to summarize, finally

  • She didn't seem willing to sell the car this week, but in any case I don't get paid until the end of the month.

Writing a rough draft conclusion

Writing a rough draft - conclusion

  • Remember how to write an effective conclusion! Is yours a conclusion or a hot miss?

  • If you’re stuck, try to summarize and then conclude your argument.

  • Or refer back to your introduction.

  • You can do this!

So now it s your turn


  • Assignment: Take your pre-writing from yesterday and turn it into a full-on Rough Draft. Try to work as quick as you can. Your ideas should already be formed!

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