Patterns of Organization. Why know pattern of organization?. They help you: understand the information anticipate the information follow ideas better… so you answer test questions better. 6 organization patterns. Listing Sequence Comparison/contrast Cause/effect Problem/solution
Patterns of Organization
The main idea is in the form of a generalization and then supporting details give a list of details or examples.
Key Words/phrases:many, several, a number of, a variety of, a few, kinds of
Signal words/phrases: for example, for instance, , first, second, another, also, besides, in addition, final, last, most important
A second theory
Yet another theory
The final theory
In sequence pattern, the author explains the main idea in a series of events or steps in a process that follow one after the other in time order.
Key Words/phrases: began, account, story, process, history, sequence
Signal words/phrases: first, second, then, next, after, while, since, soon, finally, at last…
Four years later
Then in 1971
In the following 11 months
Next major step, in 1976
At that point
In comparison/contrast pattern, the writer’s main idea is a general statement about two things and how they are similar and/or different. Comparisons can include BOTH similarities and differences or only similarities. A contrast states only differences.
Key Words/phrases:similarities, differences, both, in common, same, different, compare, comparison
Signal words/phrases for similarities: similarly, also, in the same way, as, like, both, in common
Signal words/phrases for differences: however, but, on the other hand, although, while, in contrast, than, conversely, yet, unlike
on the other hand
other major component
The writer’s main idea is that one event or action caused another event or action
Key Words/phrases and Signal words are the same:causes, leads to, is the cause of, results in, creates, brings about, makes…
result of/ because of
as a result
In this pattern, the main idea names a problem and states there are one or more solutions possible. The paragraph contains two parts: 1) a statement and 2) a description and explanation of how it was solved.
There are no signal words for the details.
Key Words/phrases:situation, trouble, crisis, dilemma, or issue.
Signal words/phrases: solve, solution, resolved
The writer names a concept or complicated process that the paragraph will define and explain. Usually main idea is in the first sentences and states a dictionary definition and/or explanation
Key Words/phrases:consists of, is, seems to be, are
The landing of men on the Moon
The first moon landing was very different from the last one.
Very different from
1. But while The first landing was an enormous achievement.
2. Far more the last landing contributed far more scientific knowledge.
3. Only the first mission lasted only a few hours.
4. However on the last mission, the three men spent more time on the Moon.
5. Much further they could travel much further from the landing site.
6. Wider they could collect a wider ranger of samples.
The impact of the Apollo moon landings
The Apollo moon landings had a significant impact on scientific and technological development in the 20th century
A significant impact
1. affected by Computer research was affected by the moon landings
2. pushing The space program pushed engineers to develop personal computers
3. attribute to The invention of the internet could be attributed to the Apollo program
4. motivation for Scientists and engineers were motivated to look for ways to communicate from computer to computer.
The lack of water on the moon
The lack of water on the Moon limits exploration of the Moon.
lack of water, limits
PROBLEM: The lack of water is a serious problem for future Moon exploration; for this reason, scientists are looking for evidence of water on the Moon.
SOLUTION: Rockets are sent to crash into the Moon so that scientists can analyze the vapor and dust created by the crash to see if there is water.