Hebrew people
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HEBREW PEOPLE. Nomadic people from Arabia who settled near Sumerian city of Ur around 2000 BC Left Mesopotamia around 1500 BC for Palestine Under leadership of Abraham Left Palestine after Abraham’s death and went to Egypt Under Jacob Enslaved by New Kingdom Egyptians

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HEBREW PEOPLE

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Hebrew people

HEBREW PEOPLE

  • Nomadic people from Arabia who settled near Sumerian city of Ur around 2000 BC

  • Left Mesopotamia around 1500 BC for Palestine

    • Under leadership of Abraham

  • Left Palestine after Abraham’s death and went to Egypt

    • Under Jacob

    • Enslaved by New Kingdom Egyptians

  • Escaped Egypt around 1300 BC

    • Return to Palestine

    • Led by Moses

    • Lost in the Sinai peninsula for 40 years


Contribution of moses

CONTRIBUTION OF MOSES

  • Recreated “God of Abraham” into YAHWEH

  • Prohibited Hebrews from worshipping other gods

  • Insisted that YAHWEH would protect Hebrews if they obeyed his rules

  • Ten Commandments contained ethical code of conduct

  • Hebrews could only please YAHWEH by worshipping him and living up to the high moral standards embodied in the Ten Commandmants


Hebrew people

KINGDOM OF ISREAL

HEBREWS RETURNED FINALLY TO PALESTINE

FOUND IT INHABITED BY CIVILIZED PEOPLE

CANAANITES

PHILISTINES


The mellowing of yahweh

THE “MELLOWING” OF YAHWEH

  • YAHWEH became more “civilized” as the Hebrews did following their return to Palestine

  • YAHWEH gradually transformed from the vindictive, jealous, easily-angered god of the Old Testament into the gentle, forgiving god of the New Testament

  • YAHWEH transformed from one god of many that the Hebrews chose to worship to the sole god of the universe (true monotheism)

  • Rise of belief in the coming of a Messiah

King Solomon

Isiah


Jesus of nazareth

JESUS OF NAZARETH

  • Background: Roman rule of province of Judea provoked terrorist activity

    • Zealots

  • Jesus born in Galilee (a Zealot stronghold)

    • But he was no terrorist

    • Man of peace

    • Out of gentle tradition established by Hillel

    • Claimed to be Messiah and Son of God

      • Dismissed as crazy prophet by most

      • Executed around 29 AD by Pontius Pilate for allegedly threatening public order in Jerusalem


Peter and paul

PETER AND PAUL

Paul

  • Peter originally believed that Jesus’ message was intended only for Jews

  • Christianity would have remained small sub-cult within Judaism without the intervention of Paul

  • Argued that Jesus was the Son of God and therefore his teaching applied to all people

  • Struggled with Peter over the universal application of Christ’s teachings

  • Won Peter over to his interpretation and worked with him to spread the word of Jesus throughout Roman Empire

Peter


Growth of christianity

GROWTH OF CHRISTIANITY

  • Attractions of Christianity

    • Non-exclusive

    • Promised forgiveness and salvation

    • Provided strong sense of community

  • Early converts came from urban lower classes

    • Soon attracted people from all walks of life

  • Despite periodic persecutions, movement grew rapidly

  • Christianity legalized by the emperor Constantine in 337 AD

  • Christianity made the only officially recognized religion in the Roman Empire by the emperor Theodosius in 380 AD


Early christian church

EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH

  • Has survived more-or-less intact in the organization of the Roman Catholic Church

  • Borrowed from Roman administrative practice

    • Divided empire into districts called dioceses

    • Each administered by a bishop

      • Headquartered in largest city in diocese

      • Elected position

    • Bishops ran church on cooperative basis through periodic councils

  • Pope (bishop of Rome) would gradually assert his superiority over other bishops

  • By 450, pope was recognized administrative and spiritual leader of the Church (also political ruler of Rome and central Italy)


Monasticism

MONASTICISM

  • Arose in response to two things:

  • Some Christians’ need to cut themselves off from the rest of society

  • Church leaders disapproved of hermit monasticism

  • Consisted of monks living together in groups in monasteries under the direction of Church-appointed officials, called abbots,

  • Aspects monasteries had in common:

  • Rural, self contained and self-sufficient estates

  • Monks divided day between prayer and work/study

  • Monasteries successful in a religious and material sense

  • Became strongholds of civilization in an increasingly barbarian world


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