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From Republic to Empire

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From Republic to Empire. Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.) Punicius - Latin for “Phoenician” 1 st Punic War- Rome defeats Carthage and controls Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia . 2 nd Punic War Carthage sought revenge Hannibal- Trek across the Alps; won many battles but never captured Rome

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Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)

    • Punicius- Latin for “Phoenician”
    • 1st Punic War- Rome defeats Carthage and controls Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
slide3

2nd Punic War

    • Carthage sought revenge
    • Hannibal- Trek across the Alps; won many battles but never captured Rome
    • Carthage gave up all land outside of Africa
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3rd Punic War

    • “Carthage must be destroyed” (Cato)
    • Romans destroy Carthage and control western Mediterranean
slide5

Other Conquests

    • Imperialism- establishing control over foreign lands and peoples
    • Romans go east to confront Macedonian and Greek rulers
    • Provinces- Roman provinces were land under Roman rule
    • Mare Nostrum- “Our Sea”
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Social and Economic Effects

    • Latifundia- huge estates controlled by wealthy families
    • Transition from agricultural life to city life
      • Flock to Rome looking for jobs
    • Greed and self-interest
slide7

Attempts at Reform

    • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
      • Distribute land to poor farmers
      • Using public funds to feed the poor
    • Killed by planned riots
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Decline of the Republic

    • Civil wars between Senate and individual political leaders
    • Slave revolts
slide9

Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power

    • 59 B.C.- Conquered Gaul (France)
    • Pompey persuades an order of Caesar to disband his army
    • Veni, Vidi, Vici
    • Absolute ruler of Rome
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Caesar’s Reforms

    • Public works
    • Broader Roman citizenship
    • Julian Calendar
slide11

Assassination and Civil Wars

    • Fear of Caesar making himself king
    • 44 B.C.- Stabbed in the senate
    • Mark Antony and Octavian
slide12

Roman Empire and Roman Peace

    • Augustus- “Exalted One”
    • 500 year old republic had come to an end
slide13

A Stable Government

    • Civil service to enforce laws
    • Self-government
    • Census- Population count
    • Postal service, created jobs for the unemployed
    • Not a peaceful transfer of power
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Bad Emperors and Good Emperors

    • Caligula and Nero
    • Hadrian- codified Roman law, Hadrian’s Wall
slide15

Pax Romana- “Roman Peace”

    • Marcus Aurelius- Meditations
    • 200 year span from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius
    • Trade from distant lands
    • Hellenism throughout Roman Empire
slide16

Bread and Circuses

    • Circus Maximus- Chariots, gambling
    • Gladiator contests
    • Used to pacify the mobs
      • Free grain to feed the poor
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