From Republic to Empire
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From Republic to Empire. Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.) Punicius - Latin for “Phoenician” 1 st Punic War- Rome defeats Carthage and controls Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia . 2 nd Punic War Carthage sought revenge Hannibal- Trek across the Alps; won many battles but never captured Rome

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  • Punic Wars (264-146 B.C.)

    • Punicius- Latin for “Phoenician”

    • 1st Punic War- Rome defeats Carthage and controls Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia


  • 2nd Punic War

    • Carthage sought revenge

    • Hannibal- Trek across the Alps; won many battles but never captured Rome

    • Carthage gave up all land outside of Africa


  • 3rd Punic War

    • “Carthage must be destroyed” (Cato)

    • Romans destroy Carthage and control western Mediterranean


  • Other Conquests

    • Imperialism- establishing control over foreign lands and peoples

    • Romans go east to confront Macedonian and Greek rulers

    • Provinces- Roman provinces were land under Roman rule

    • Mare Nostrum- “Our Sea”


  • Social and Economic Effects

    • Latifundia- huge estates controlled by wealthy families

    • Transition from agricultural life to city life

      • Flock to Rome looking for jobs

    • Greed and self-interest


  • Attempts at Reform

    • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus

      • Distribute land to poor farmers

      • Using public funds to feed the poor

    • Killed by planned riots



  • Julius Caesar’s Rise to Power

    • 59 B.C.- Conquered Gaul (France)

    • Pompey persuades an order of Caesar to disband his army

    • Veni, Vidi, Vici

    • Absolute ruler of Rome





  • A Stable Government

    • Civil service to enforce laws

    • Self-government

    • Census- Population count

    • Postal service, created jobs for the unemployed

    • Not a peaceful transfer of power



  • Pax Romana- “Roman Peace”

    • Marcus Aurelius- Meditations

    • 200 year span from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius

    • Trade from distant lands

    • Hellenism throughout Roman Empire


  • Bread and Circuses

    • Circus Maximus- Chariots, gambling

    • Gladiator contests

    • Used to pacify the mobs

      • Free grain to feed the poor


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