The enlightenment and the American Revolution. 1700-1800. The enlightenment. (5-1) I. Philosophy in the Age of Reason A) Scientific Revolution Sparks the Enlightenment B) Hobbs & Locke have conflicting views C) Philosophes (fee loh ZOHFS) D) New Economic Thinking
The enlightenmentandthe American Revolution
(5-1) I. Philosophy in the Age of Reason
A) Scientific Revolution Sparks the Enlightenment
B) Hobbs & Locke have conflicting views
C) Philosophes (fee loh ZOHFS)
D) New Economic Thinking
Adam Smith’s Law of Supply & Demand
New ideas in government and politics
People began questioning the need for all powerful Kings
Can people choose leaders for themselves?
“All people are created equal”
New (and potentially dangerous) concept – Dangerous to who?
Prior to this time
Suddenly it became
The shift from the idea of Divine Right of Kings to the Social Contract Theory was influenced by the Enlightened Philosophers.
Philosophy is the love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge
Today, where do people go to exchange ideas, debate, and chat?
Enlightenment ideas –
what did they mean?
It was all about government and the role in played in people’s lives.
In the wake of the Scientific Revolution came the Enlightenment. This was an era in which people used reason to try to understand more about human behavior and solve the problems of society.
Hobbes and Locke Had Conflicting Views
English philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both wrote about society and the ideal form of governing it. Hobbes thought people needed strict control to rein in their naturally brutish tendencies. Locke thought people were moral at heart and were entitled to certain natural rights, which governments were obliged to protect.
The matter, forme, & Power of a commonwealth
Observation: people are generally bad
Life without a strong government is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
Hypothesis: Absolute government is needed to control evil behavior
Two Treatises of government
Observation: government exists to: “preserve life, liberty, and property.”
People had certain “natural rights” or rights that belonged to all humans from birth
Hypothesis: People should be sovereign (rule)
Hypothesis: Monarch not chosen by God
What were they thinking?
They did not always agree with one another!
New economic thinking
Economists also applied reason to their study of economics during the Enlightenment. Adam Smith and a group of French thinkers called physiocrats urged economies that operated with little government control.
Adam smith and the invisible hand
Physiocratsvs the mercantilists
The spirit of laws
Baron de Montesquieu
Observation: The best way to protect liberty was to divide the various functions and powers of the government among three branches
Each branch of government should be able to serve as a check on the other two
Where have you seen this before?
Montesquieu influenced the U.S. Constitution
The Constitution sets up three branches of Government, just as Montesquieu recommended.
“My trade is to say what I think”
Criticized powerful institutions for being unjust
Targeted corrupt officials and idle aristocrats
Supported freedom of speech
Imprisoned and forced into exile, books outlawed and burned
“I disapprove of what you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it”
What was Voltaire’s opinion on the relationship between religion and the government?
There should be “separation of church and state”
The social contract
Despised political and economic oppression
People in their natural state were basically good
Their natural innocence was corrupted by the evils of society, making it restrictive
Advocated the will of the majority and the common good
What does Rousseau say should happen if this contract is broken by the rulers?
Loved the theater
Courted the aristocrats
Wary of revolution
Equality was impossible
Charmed with his wit
Insisted on the supremacy of the intellect
Endlessly repeated the same handful of core Enlightenment notions
(Use AN acronym)
Fueled democratic revolutions around world (American, French)
Signing of the Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776
Bastille: The French Revolution begins July 14, 1789
(5-2) II. Enlightenment Ideas Spread
A) New ideas challenge society
B) Arts and literature reflect new meanings
C) Enlightened despots embrace new ideas
D) Lives of the majority change slowly
New Ideas Challenge Society
While churches and monarchies tried to stop the flow of Enlightenment ideas through censorship, Enlightenment thinkers found new ways of spreading their ideas, such as through novels and salons.
Arts and Literature Reflect New Ideas
The Enlightenment saw the birth of new styles in art, music, and literature. Painters embraced the lighter and more informal rococo style; composers, too, moved away from the baroque and into rococo and classical music. This was evidenced in the works of Handel, Haydn, and Mozart. In literature, the novel was king as audiences devoured long stories about their own times.
New ideas reflected in Music
What new form of literature evolved during the Age of Enlightenment?
This is how philosophesand writers avoided censorship…
disguising ideas in works of fiction
What was significant about Don Quixote?
It was the first novel
(fiction-- not a true story)
Cervantes was from Spain
It was a story about an idiotic knight--the book made fun of knights and the middle ages
Enlightened Despots Embrace New Ideas
Some absolute rulers of the time adopted limited reforms inspired by Enlightenment ideas. For instance Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Joseph II of Austria all showed religious tolerance. Still the monarchs were not willing to share their power.
Lives of the Majority Change Slowly
It wasn’t until the late 1700s that Enlightenment ideas spread through Europe’s peasant classes. In time, these ideas, in combination with war and economic troubles, would bring the masses to revolt.
The winds of change are in the air
France, Austria, Prussia, Russia