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Next Generation Sequencing in Science and Medicine. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues 28 February 2011 Washington D.C. Jim Evans MD, Ph.D University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. DNA Has Only Two Jobs. It serves as a store of information

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next generation sequencing in science and medicine

Next Generation Sequencing in Science and Medicine

The Presidential Commissionfor the Study of Bioethical Issues

28 February 2011

Washington D.C.

Jim Evans MD, Ph.D

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

dna has only two jobs
DNA Has Only Two Jobs
  • It serves as a store of information
    • Ensuring that information is passed on to each new cell upon division (and the next generation)
  • It directs the synthesis of proteins
    • Which are necessary to carry out the functions of a living organism
dna s structure explains how it accomplishes both jobs
DNA’s Structure Explains How it Accomplishes Both Jobs

DNA Serves as a Store of Information

A

C

T

G

T

A

G

C

Adenine (A)

Cytosine (C)

Always binds to

Always binds to

Thymine (T)

Guanine (G)

As a double helix, each DNA molecule contains a copy of itself

dna s structure explains how it accomplishes both jobs1
DNA’s Structure Explains How it Accomplishes Both Jobs

DNA Directs the Synthesis of Proteins

  • It is the order of the bases that provides the instructions for protein synthesis
  • One stretch of DNA directs the synthesis of one type of protein, another stretch directs the synthesis of another type of protein

A

C

T

G

slide5

We call a stretch of DNA that directs the synthesis of one particular protein a Gene

Gene #1

Gene #2

Gene #3

dna sequencing
DNA Sequencing
  • You have 3 billion bases arrayed in a unique order, with ~20,000 genes that direct the synthesis of all the proteins that comprise you
  • “Sequencing” DNA is simply the elucidation of the order of the bases in an organism’s DNA strand
  • The unique order of your bases greatly influences your health, e.g.
    • What disease you are more - or less - prone to
    • How you will react to different medications
  • A human “genome” is about 6 feet of DNA
    • And each of your cells contains two copies of your genome
a human dna sequence
A Human DNA Sequence

atcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatctactagaagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattggaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtagccctacgtaccgtcggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggattagatccgtagatcgtaggaaatatctcggataattaacagatacacacccttagaccatttaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtgtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattcaaattcagtcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattggctacgtaccgtattaactaggatctccgatggtacccattaagacacccaaaataggtaacaggtagacatattgatacccatagaggatagatttaggacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccagctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacgggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtgtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcgccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcacacacacactgacagagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgcagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgagagtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctggactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggca

  • ~1/1,000,000th of the Human Genome
  • Interspersed with genes
  • And “polymorphisms” which differ between people
    • Are sometimes important, influencing traits
    • or medically important characteristics
sequencing dna
Sequencing DNA
  • Early techniques were developed in the 1970’s
  • A variety of approaches now exist
  • The biggest limitation to sequencing is that the genome is big
    • So carrying out these reactions for an entire genome is slow and expensive
next generation sequencing
Next Generation Sequencing
  • Takes advantage of miniaturization to engage in massively parallel analysis
    • Essentially carrying out millions of sequencing reactions simultaneously in each of 10 million tiny wells
  • Sophisticated computer analysis of huge amounts of information allows “assembly" of a given sequence
accelerating technology plummeting cost
Accelerating Technology & Plummeting Cost

Next Generation Sequencing

$795 in 1977

(=$2,800 in current $)

genomics long term promise
Genomics’ Long Term Promise
  • An avalanche of Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in common diseases
  • WGS is now a practical reality
  • Will shed light on the genetic underpinnings of every disease imaginable

Ultimately transforming Medical Science

medical science medical practice
Medical Science = Medical Practice
  • Medical Science is the indispensible foundation of Medical Practice
  • But medical practice is far more complex
    • More variables
    • Individual values matter – and they differ
  • Theory alone is insufficient to guide practice
  • Time-line for translation is long
  • Successful translation into practice is not guaranteed by scientific understanding
        • See sickle cell disease
  • It’s far more expensive
  • The stakes are much higher in Medical Practice
    • Because the power to harm is real and potent
where does the clinical promise of genomics lie probably not in risk assessment for common disease
Where Does the Clinical Promise of Genomics Lie?Probably not in risk assessment for common disease

Probably not in simply assessing risk

  • Common diseases have many factors, of which genetics is only one
  • The bulk of any individual’s genetic risk for common disease is modest
    • Thus assessing genetic risk only “nudges” that risk slightly
  • Few data to suggest that knowledge of one’s genomic status for common disease is useful or is effective in changing behavior

Genetics

Diabetes

Diet

Exercise

Hypertension

Smoking

what s the right nail for sequencing technology
What’s The Right Nail For Sequencing Technology?
  • As a diagnostic tool in enigmatic patients
  • As a public health tool to identify those apparently well individuals with dramatically increased risk of preventable disease
next generation sequencing as a clinical diagnostic tool
Next Generation Sequencing as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool
  • 47 yo female with sudden cardiac arrest
  • Resuscitated successfully
  • EKG reveals “Long QT Syndrome”
    • High risk for sudden death
    • Dozens of genes implicated
  • Application of NGS to detect mutation
  • Thereby guiding patient’s treatment and prevention of death in family members

?

?

?

?

?

next generation sequencing as a public health tool
Next Generation Sequencing as a Public Health Tool
  • ~0.25% of US women (375,000) carry a mutation in BRCA1/2
    • At very high risk of breast and ovarian cancer
      • 85% lifetime breast cancer risk
      • 25-50% lifetime ovarian cancer cancer
  • Knowledge of risk allows prevention
    • Currently we only can identify such women once several family members have developed cancer
  • NGS allows population screening for high risk preventable disorders
    • Cancer predisposition, cardiac disease, etc.
    • ~1-2% of population carry such mutations
      • 3-6 million individuals in the US with preventable disorders if identified
challenges to harnessing ngs in clinical medicine public health
Challenges to Harnessing NGS in Clinical Medicine & Public Health
  • Accuracy
    • 99.99% accuracy x 3 billion nucleotides
    • = 300,000 errors per patient
  • Interpretation of the variants we find
  • Storage and access in the medical record
  • Education of patients and public
  • Issues of consent and reporting
  • Education of providers
incidental information
Incidental Information
  • Upon WGS we discover many things we weren\'t looking for, which we can do nothing about
    • Some are trivial or indeed beneficial
    • But some are problematic
    • And we will occasionally discover lethal, untreatable late onset conditions
  • Some wish to know such information; others do not
  • We must grapple with how to inform patients about such information
    • protect patients from harm but also allow individual autonomy and choice
in the clinical arena genetic information presents few qualitatively new challenges

Jim’s Whole Genome Sequence!!

ATGGTCCTATGGATCTCTTTAAAGGGCCTTAGTACTTACCGTAACTTTAGCCGGTAGCTTAATCGTGCCTAGGTCGATTGCCTAGGCTTAGCTAGCTTGG

In the Clinical Arena, Genetic Information Presents Few Qualitatively New Challenges

Eschewing Genetic Exceptionalism

  • Genetic tests affect others
    • Infectious Disease
  • Provide probabilistic information to the asymptomatic
    • Cholesterol
  • Our genome cannot be changed
    • Nor can much of what we discover medically
  • Insurance discrimination
    • Actually better for genetics than the rest of medicine
  • Unexpected results, FPs/FNs
    • Are a routine part of all clinical care
  • DNA is “uniquely identifiable”
    • Zip code + DOB + spouse’s first name
challenges to realizing genomic medicine
Challenges to Realizing Genomic Medicine

Creation of a centralized, evidence-based, iterative process to define clinically significant genomic findings

Thorough health-oriented phenotypic annotation of variants

Enabling realistic shared decision making among a range of providers, technology interfaces and patients

Understanding the ethical dimensions, patient preferences & values regarding returning incidental results

Maintaining a sober focus on evidence

Life is short, the art long, opportunity fleeting, experience delusive, judgment difficult

a human dna sequence1
A Human DNA Sequence

atcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatctactagaagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattggaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtagccctacgtaccgtcggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccagga/taaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtgtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattcaaattcagtcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattggctacgtaccgta/gacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccagctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacgggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtgtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggc/gccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcacacacacactgacagagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgaggtcaggttgttcaactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgcagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggcagtcgtaacgtacgtacggtactggtaacgtgagagtcaggttgttcaactcatcgtgactgattaccaggatcctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgagaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtctagcggatcctactgacctgacgtacgtaatgcagtggtcaggttgttcaactcgatgactagaatatatccaggaaaatccctggactcatccaggaaaatccctgggaaaaattgggccctacgtaccgtaacgttgcaaattcagtcggtacgtttccaggctacacacacactgacagatagacagattgtcgtgttatvtgacttggaactgtaggcccttgaatcttggca

  • ~1/1,000,000th of the Human Genome
  • Interspersed with genes
  • And “polymorphisms” which differ between people
    • Are sometimes important, influencing traits
    • or medically important characteristics
slide26

DNA basics

Mx of sequencing

Key to next gen is massive parallelism and IT

Graph with drop in cost. Use my computer electronics slide

Real promise rsrch, drug targets , need to keep a realistic focus; timeline is long,

Impatience to apply

Early applications of Genomic technology

Arrays

-Clinical Dx

- consumer application. Slide on DTC with problems. GAO data. RR. Problems slide

Soon sequencing will supersede arrays

Clinical Application: real clinical use will be dx Why?

Genetic heterogeneity examples

Public health application

Problems:

Vast data sets.

incidental info

Binning to handle

Risky info (reintroduce GE here)

Come back to bin with risk stratification now revealed.

?Somewhere: slide on evidence and practice (lidocaine) in context of to understand clinical Sequencing need to understand some important medical principles like EBM

Use the science not equal to medicine slide.

Discourage genetic exceptionalism in clinical medicine except where waranted…but we’re used to dealing with privat and complex information.

Address the fact that clinical genomic testing is very different from research.

Need focus on evidence

Finish up with ethical challenges, including IP,

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