Voices from America’s Past
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Voices from America’s Past Our New Life In America Dave Thompson Peabody Publishers New York. Table of Contents Chapter page 1. Leaving Home 3 2. Voyage to America 18 3. Life in Steerage 25

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Voices from america s past our new life in america dave thompson peabody publishers new york

Voices from America’s Past

Our New Life In

America

Dave Thompson

Peabody Publishers

New York

Table of Contents

Chapter page

1. Leaving Home 3

2. Voyage to America 18

3. Life in Steerage 25

4. Ellis Island 42

5. Medical Exam 61

6. Citizenship 73

Glossary 92


Voices from america s past our new life in america dave thompson peabody publishers new york

Ellis Island was a United States reception center for immigrants for more than 60 years. It is located in New York Harbor, less than 1/2 mile (0.8 kilometer) north of Liberty Island, the home of the Statue of Liberty. Over 12 million people first entered the United States through Ellis Island. The island is named for Samuel Ellis, a merchant and farmer who owned it during the late 1700's. The United States government bought the island in 1808.

The government began using Ellis Island as an immigration station in 1892. About 35 buildings were constructed on the island. Newcomers were taken to the main building, an impressive two-story wooden structure. That building burned down in 1897, and was replaced by a three-story brick building. The immigrants were questioned by government officials and examined by doctors. Certain people were prohibited by federal law from immigrating to the United States. They included criminals, the insane, and people who had infectious diseases. But about 98 percent of those examined at Ellis Island were allowed into the country.

The island's large-scale use as an immigration station ended in 1924. The station closed completely in 1954. In 1965, the island became a national historic site, part of the existing Statue of Liberty National Monument. The site is managed and operated by the federal government's National Park Service.

The National Park Service began major repairs of the island's buildings in the 1980's. The island was reopened to the public in 1990. The main building was completely restored and is now the Ellis Island Immigration Museum.

. The museum's exhibits include old photographs, clothing, toys, and passports of immigrants. Visitors can listen to recordings of immigrants sharing their memories of Ellis Island. Several rooms, including the Registry Room or Great Hall (main reception area), now appear as they did between 1918 and 1924, the island's busiest years as an immigration station. The American Immigrant Wall of Honor, created in 1990, stands outside the museum. The names of more than 600,000 immigrants are engraved on this wall in honor of all immigrants. Both the states of New York and New Jersey have long claimed official jurisdiction over Ellis Island. In 1834, the two states agreed to give New York official jurisdiction over the land while New Jersey got jurisdiction over the surrounding water and submerged land. At the time, the island covered only 3.3 acres (1.3 hectares). But through the years, landfill added 24.2 acres (9.8 hectares) to the total area. New Jersey sued New York to gain jurisdiction over the island. In 1998, a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court gave New Jersey jurisdiction over all of the island except the original 3.3 acres, which New York kept. All buildings on Ellis Island are owned by the federal government, and the National Park Service continues to manage and operate the site.______________Contributor:• Frank J. Coppa, Ph.D., Professor of History and Director, Doctor of Arts Program in Modern World History, St. John's University.

World Book Article:


Ellis island timeline

1770-1790Samuel Ellis opened a tavern on the islanded on the island.

1800-1820In 1808 Ellis Island is sold by the Ellis family to Federal Government for $10,000.

1814 – First wave of immigration begins

Nearly five million people will arrive from Northern and Western Europe in the next forty-five years.

1840-1860The potato blight or famine hits Ireland

1 million Irish arrive in America in the next decade.

1 million Germans come to America to flee political and economic unrest.

1861-1885- Homestead Act- promising free land passes and leads to more immigrants arriving.

1890The control of immigration is turned over to the Federal Government, and $75,000 is appropriated for construction of the first Federal Immigration Station on Ellis Island.."

1892Ellis Island Openson January 1, 1892 as three large ships wait to land. 700 immigrants passed through Ellis Island that day, and nearly 450,000 followed through the course of that first year. 1893-1899

1911-1920World War I begins in 1914 and immigration to the U.S. halts. Ellis Island experiences a sharp decline in receiving immigrants - from 178,416 in 1915 to 28,867 in 1918

1924

Immigration Act of 1924 restricting further immigration, the annual quota of immigrants reduces to 164,000. The buildings on Ellis Island begin to fall into neglect and abandonment. America is experiencing the end of mass immigration.

1952

The Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, and a liberalized detention policy, results in the number of detainees on the island to plummet to less than 30.

1965After President Lyndon B. Johnson issues Proclamation 3656,Ellis Island falls under the jurisdiction of The National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument.

1970-1990Ellis Island opens to the public in 1976. During this year over 50,000 people visit

1990

The $156 million dollar restoration of the Main Arrivals Building is completed and re-opened to the public in 1990. Since then millions of visitors have retraced the steps of their ancestors by experiencing Ellis Island.

Ellis Island - Timeline


Voices from america s past our new life in america dave thompson peabody publishers new york

Glossary

adapt – to change to fit into a new situation

anarchist- a person who believes in a lack

of order and laws.

anti-semitism- dislike of Jewish people

bribe –to offer someone money or a gift to persuade the person to do something for you

czar – on e of the male rulers of Russia

garment- clothing

immigrant- a person who comes to live in a country in which he or she was not born

kosher – prepared according to Jewish laws

matchmaker – one who arranges or tries to arrange marriages

polygamist-belief in having more than one spouse

pogrom- mob attack on Jewish people

steerage- cheapest section of a passenger ship

sweatshop- a factory in which employees work long hours at low pay under poor conditions

tenement- a run-down apartment building in a crowded

and poor part of a city

traditions – customs, ideas, or beliefs that are passed down from parents to their children

union- a group of workers joined together to improve their working conditions and pay

Number of legal immigrants admitted to the U.S. annually since 1820

Year No. of Immigrants

1820 8,400

1830 23,300

1840 84,100

1850 370,000

1860 153,600

1870 387,200

1880 455,300

1900 448,600

1910 1,041,600

1920 430,000

1930 241,700

1940 70,800

1950 249,200

1960 265,400

1970 373,300

1980 530,600

1990 1,536,500

1995 720,500

1998 660,477


Medical inspection

All immigrants arriving to the U.S. were required to have a medical inspection. The immigrant was medically inspected by the U.S. Public Health Service. The steerage immigrant received three medical exams before entering America

1. Once before boarding the ship

2. Once during the journey

3. On Ellis Island

Remember that only steerage passengers were required to go to Ellis Island. First and second-class passengers were given their medical and legal inspection on board the steamship. As the immigrant entered the “Great Hall” of Ellis Island, they were greeted by physicians who inspected the in an average time of 6-seconds. During that time doctors were looking for symptoms of over 60 different diseases and ailments.

Inspection Symbols

The symbols below were chalked on the clothing of potentially sick immigrants following the six-second medical examination. The doctors would look at them as they climbed the stairs from the baggage area up to the Great Hall. Immigrants' behavior would be studied for difficulties in getting up the staircase in any way. Some only entered the country by surreptitiously wiping them off or by turning their clothes inside out..

C - Conjunctivitis

B - Back

CT - Trachoma

E - Eyes

EC - Eye Problems

F - Face

FT - Feet

G - Goiter

H - Heart

K - Hernia

L - Lameness

N - Neck

P - Physical and Lungs

PG - Pregnancy

S - Senility

SC - Scalp (fungus)

SI - Special Inquiry

WOP - Without papers

X - Suspected Mental Defect

X (circled) - Definite signs of mental disease

Medical Inspection


Inspection

After the immigrant was given a medical exam, they would usually wait on benches in the “Great Hall” until the U.S. Immigration Inspector called them to the inspection desks. The inspector had the ship’s list of passengers called a Manifest.

This legal document had answers to numerous questions about an immigrant's background. The immigrant had to furnish this information to the boat company at the time of their ticket purchase and boarding. In just a few minutes the legal inspection was usually completed.

With the help of interpreters ( if needed), immigrants repeated their answers for inspectors and most passed inspection.

If an immigrant did not answer correctly, they were placed in detention rooms until a Board of Special Inquiry heard their case.

During the years 1892-1954, Ellis Island processed over 12 million immigrants.

Of that figure, 98% passed inspection;

only 2% ( approx 250,000) immigrants were

returned to their country of origin.

List of Manifest of Alien Passengers

Occupation

Able to Read/Write

Nationality

Race

Last Residence

Name & Address of relative in native country

Final Destination

No. on list

Whether having a ticket to final destination

By who was passage paid?

Whether in possession of $50.00

Whether ever in U.S. before?

Whether going to join relative; name

Ever in prison, almshouse, institution for care

of insane

Where a polygamist

Whether an Anarchist

Whether coming with an offer

Condition of health

Deformed or crippled

Height

Complexion

Color of eyes/hair

Identifying marks

Place of birth/country/city/town

Hint: the most important questions were: 6,15,16, and 22

Inspection


Major immigration movements to the united states source u s immigration and naturalization service

Major immigration movements to the United States Source : U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service


Voices from america s past our new life in america dave thompson peabody publishers new york

U.S. Custom and Border Protection

On a Typical Day:

Rescued more than—

4 illegal crossers in dangerous conditions between

our ports of entry

Deployed more than—

1,200 canine enforcement teams

13,400 vehicles, 85 aircraft, 75 watercraft, 130

horses on equestrian patrol and 400 all-terrain

vehicles

Utilized—

265 remote video surveillance cameras

11,938 underground sensors

Protected more than—

5,000 miles of border with Canada

1,900 miles of border with Mexico

95,000 miles of shoreline

Employed approximately 42,000 employees—

18,000 offi cers

11,300 Border Patrol agents

1,800 agriculture specialists

1,150 air and marine offi cers and pilots

Managed—

317 ports of entry

20 sectors with 33 border checkpoints between the

ports of entry

Processed more than—

1,181,605 passengers and pedestrians, including

630,976 aliens;

69,370 truck, rail and sea containers;

235,732 incoming international air passengers;

71,858 passengers/crew arriving by ship;

333,226 incoming privately owned vehicles;

79,107 shipments of goods approved for entry;

$81,834,298 in fees, duties and tariff s; and

493 terrorism-related inquiries.

Executed more than—

62 arrests at ports of entry;

3,257 apprehensions between ports for illegal

entry.

Seized an average of—

2,187 pounds of narcotics in 65 seizures at ports

of entry;

3,354 pounds of narcotics in 20 seizures between

ports of entry;

$77,360 in undeclared or illicit currency and

$329,119 worth of fraudulent commercial merchandise

at ports of entry;

49 vehicles between ports of entry;

1,145 prohibited meat, plant materials or animal

products, including 147 agricultural pests at ports

of entry.

Refused entry of—

868 non-citizens at our ports of entry;

45 criminal aliens attempting to enter the United

States.

Intercepted more than—

210 fraudulent documents

1 traveler for terrorism/national security concerns

1 stowaway


Voices from america s past our new life in america dave thompson peabody publishers new york

Ellis Island I

Our New Life in America is a part of what series?

a. Past Lives c. New Life

b. Voices from America d. America the Beautiful

What caused the decline of immigration between 1911-1920?

What is anti-Semitism?

Which year had the most immigrants 1880 or

1970?

Which year did Ellis Island close?

a. 1892c. 1954

b. 1923 d. 1924

Where is Ellis Island located?

a. Gulf of Mexico c. Atlantic Ocean

b. New York Harbor d. New Jersey Sound

What did Kstand for on the Medical Inspection?

Why did the Cubans come to the United States?

What is the source of the Table on Major

Immigration movements to the U.S.?

How many Immigrants came through Ellis Island the first year?

Ellis Island I

Our New Life in America is a part of what series?

a. Past Lives c. New Life

b. Voices from America d. America the Beautiful

What caused the decline of immigration between 1911-1920?

What is anti-Semitism?

Which year had the most immigrants 1880 or

1970?

Which year did Ellis Island close?

a. 1892c. 1954

b. 1923 d. 1924

Where is Ellis Island located?

a. Gulf of Mexico c. Atlantic Ocean

b. New York Harbor d. New Jersey Sound

What did Kstand for on the Medical Inspection?

Why did the Cubans come to the United States?

What is the source of the Table on Major

Immigration movements to the U.S.?

How many Immigrants came through Ellis Island the first year?


Voices from america s past our new life in america dave thompson peabody publishers new york

Ellis Island II

1. What page does chapter 4 end on?

ac.

b.d.

2. What caused immigration to increase in 1861-1885?

3. Define anarchist?

4. What year did Ellis Island open?

a.1998c. 1892

b. 1891d. 1808

5. Who wrote the Worldbook article?

a. Dave Thompson c. Thomas Edison

b. Frank J. Coppa d. Samuel Ellis

What year had the least immigrants 1860 or 1940?

What did Cstand for on the Medical Inspection?

What percentage of the people entering Ellis

Island were rejected?

a. 90%c. 3%

b. 20%d. 2%

Why did the Jews come to the U.S.?

How many immigrants passed through Ellis

Island in its first year, 1892?

Ellis Island II

1. What page does chapter 4 end on?

ac.

b.d.

2. What caused immigration to increase in 1861-1885?

3. Define anarchist?

4. What year did Ellis Island open?

a.1998c. 1892

b. 1891d. 1808

5. Who wrote the Worldbook article?

a. Dave Thompson c. Thomas Edison

b. Frank J. Coppa d. Samuel Ellis

What year had the least immigrants 1860 or 1940?

What did Cstand for on the Medical Inspection?

What percentage of the people entering Ellis

Island were rejected?

a. 90%c. 3%

b. 20%d. 2%

Why did the Jews come to the U.S.?

How many immigrants passed through Ellis

Island in its first year, 1892?


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