Pls 623 physiology of plants ii spring semester 2014
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PLS 623: Physiology of Plants II Spring Semester 2014. Jan Smalle ( [email protected] ). Journal club format. Why? Practice how to prepare papers and express ideas correctly. Training in science debate . Practice presentation: research seminar. TARGETED PROTEIN DEGRADATION.

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PLS 623: Physiology of Plants II Spring Semester 2014

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PLS 623: Physiology of Plants IISpring Semester 2014

Jan Smalle ([email protected])


Journal club format

Why?

Practice how to prepare papers and express ideas correctly.

Training in science debate.

Practice presentation: research seminar.


TARGETED PROTEIN DEGRADATION

Lectures: January 15, 17

Exam: January 22


Central dogma of genetics


Central dogma of genetics

Regulation of an organisms differentiation and responses to the environment are the result of changes in gene expression.

OLD THEORY: Regulation of gene expression is predominantly controlled at the transcription level.

NEW THEORY: Regulation of gene expression is the result of a combination of protein synthesis (transcription/translation) and protein degradation controls.


EXAMPLE

Day/night cycle: day light activates gene expression

Light

PROTEIN

DNA

RNA

Light responses


Dark

DNA

RNA

PROTEIN ????

Light responses ?

Day/night cycle: During night time, light-inducible genes are down-regulated

However, regulatory proteins that promote the light response need to be removed in the dark. Otherwise, they would interfere with the dark response.


Photomorphogenesis

HY5: a transcriptional activator of

photomorphogenic

development

Light intensity

5 days old Arabidopsis seedlings grown under a range of light intensities

Western blot using HY5 antiserum

(Osterlund et al., 2000)


Ethylene signaling

EIN3: a transcriptional activator of

ethylene responses

Western blot using EIN3 antiserum

4 days old Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark on a range of concentrations of the ethylene precursor ACC

(Guo and Ecker, 2003)


PRO +

PROTEIN

Q

O

O

O

I

I

I

I

P

P

P

P

T

T

T

T

N

N

N

N

R

R

R

R

E

E

E

E

Proteolysis

Errors:

Misfolded:

Cleaved:

AA supply:

Regulation:

T

PRQTEIN

PRO

PROPROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

EIN

PROTEIN


Non-specific Proteolysis

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

O

O

O

O

O

O

I

I

I

I

I

I

P

P

P

P

P

P

T

T

T

T

T

T

N

N

N

N

N

N

R

R

R

R

R

R

E

E

E

E

E

E


Specific or Targeted Proteolysis

PROTEIN

O

I

P

T

N

R

E

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN


Conditional Proteolysis

PROTEIN

O

I

P

T

N

R

E

DARK

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN


Conditional Proteolysis

O

I

P

T

N

R

E

Many cases of conditional proteolysis involve secondary modifications of target proteins.

For example: phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.

*

Kinase

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

Phosphatase


Conditional Proteolysis

O

I

P

T

N

R

E

Many cases of conditional proteolysis involve secondary modifications of target proteins.

For example: phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.

*

Kinase

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

Phosphatase


Conditional Proteolysis

O

I

P

T

N

R

E

Signal

Receptor

X?

*

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN

PROTEIN


[Vierstra, 2003 TIPS]


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