The Heart
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The Heart. Lesson # 5. Chapter 20. Objectives:. 1- Describe the anatomy of the heart, including: - Vascular supply Pericardium structure. Major blood vessels. - Chambers and valves of the heart.

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Lesson # 5

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Lesson 5

The Heart

Lesson # 5

Chapter 20

Objectives:

  • 1- Describe the anatomy of the heart, including:

  • - Vascular supply

  • Pericardium structure.

  • Major blood vessels.

  • - Chambers and valves of the heart.

  • 2- Tracing the pathway of blood through the heart and lungs.3- Explain the events of an action potential in cardiac muscle.

  • 4- Describe the conducting system of the heart.


Lesson 5

An Introduction to the Cardiovascular System

Systemic Circuit

It supplies blood to every organ of the body, including the heart itself.

Cardiovascular System

Pulmonary Circuit

Aorta

Pulmonary

Pulmonary

Vena cava

It carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart.

Arteries (2)

Veins (4)

Blood Vessels

Arteries

They carry blood away from the heart.

Veins

They carry blood back to (toward) the heart.

Capillaries

They connect the arteries with the veins.


Lesson 5

Pulmonary Circuit

Gas exchange

It carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart.

O2rich blood through VEINS

O2poor blood through ARTERIES

Systemic Circuit

It supplies blood to every organ of the body, including the heart itself.

O2poor blood through VEINS

O2rich blood through ARTERIES


Lesson 5

GasExchange

Systemic

Pulmonary

Circuit

Circuit

Capillary

Lung

Venule

Arteriole

Pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary veins

O2 poor,

CO2 rich blood

O2 rich,

CO2 poor blood

Wastes

Nutrients

O2

O2

CO2

CO2

Venae cavae

Aorta

Capillary

Tissue

Venule

Arteriole


Lesson 5

Cardiovascular System:

Pulmonary Circuit

It carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart

Systemic Circuit

It supplies blood to every organ of the body, including the lungs and the heart itself

Blood Vessels:

Arteries

They carry blood away from the heart

Veins

They carry blood back to (toward) the heart

Capillaries

They connect the arteries with the veins


Lesson 5

The heart is located in the chest cavity, surrounded by the pericardial sac, in the anterior portion of the mediastinum.


Lesson 5

The Pericardium

Pericardial cavity

The pericardium is a double-walled sac (pericardial sac) that encloses the heart.

Parietal pericardium

Visceral pericardium (epicardium)

Pericarditis is a disorder caused by inflammation of the pericardium, the sac-like covering of the heart.

Mesothelium

Areolar tissue

Fibrous tissue

Pericarditis can be caused by bacterial, fungal, or viral infections. It may also be a result of injury or trauma to the chest, esophagus, or heart. Pain occurs as a result of the inflamed pericardium rubbing against the heart.


Lesson 5

Superficial Anatomy of the Heart

Right pulmonary veins

Left pulmonary veins

Pulmonary trunk

Superior vena cava

Lungs

Superior vena cava

Coronary sulcus

Aorta

Left atrium

Coronary sinus

Anterior interventricular sulcus

Left atrium

Right atrium

Right atrium

Left ventricle

Inferior vena cava

Right ventricle

Inferior vena cava

Left ventricle

Right ventricle

Coronary sulcus

Coronary sinus

Posterior interventricular sulcus

Anterior surface

Posterior surface


Lesson 5

The Heart Wall

Parietal pericardium

Areolar tissue

Areolar tissue

Pericardial cavity

MYOCARDIUM

(cardiac muscle tissue)

ENDOCARDIUM

EPICARDIUM

Endothelium

Mesothelium

Visceral pericardium

Mesothelium

Areolar tissue

Fibrous tissue

Endocarditis is inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and heart valves (endocardium). Most people who develop endocarditis have heart disease of the valves.


Lesson 5

Internal Anatomy and Organization

Gas exchange

Superior vena cava

Poor oxygen blood

Pulmonary arteries

Coronary sinus

Reach oxygen blood

Inferior vena cava

Pulmonary veins (4)

RIGHT ATRIUM

LEFT ATRIUM

Aorta

RIGHT VENTRICLE

LEFT VENTRICLE

To the rest of the body


Lesson 5

Superior vena cava

It drains oxygen-poor blood from tissues and organs superior to the diaphragm to the right atrium.

Aorta

Pulmonary trunk

It carries oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the whole body.

It carries oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

Pulmonary veins (4)

Inferior vena cava

They carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium.

It drains oxygen-poor blood from tissues and organs inferior to the diaphragm to the right atrium.

Coronary sinus (no shown)

It drains oxygen-poor blood from the heart tissues to the right atrium.


Lesson 5

The Heart Valves

The heart has two pairs of one-way valves that prevent the backflow when the chambers contract

Pressure

Pressure

It prevents back flow of blood from the LV to the LA

It prevents back flow of blood from the RV to the RA

Left AV

(bicuspid) valve

Right AV

(tricuspid) valve


Lesson 5

The Heart Valves

The heart has two pairs of one-way valves that prevent the backflow when the chambers contract

It prevents back flow of blood from the pulmonary trunk to the RV

Aortic semilunar valve

Pressure

Pressure

Pulmonary semilunar valve

It prevents back flow of blood from the aorta to the LV


Lesson 5

Ligamentum arteriosum

Four openings of the pulmonary veins

Remnant of ductus arteriosum

Opening of superior vena cava

Aortic arch

(Remnant of foramen oval)

Pulmonary trunk

Fossaovalis

Pulmonary veins

Opening of coronary sinus

Aortic semilunar valve

Opening of inferior vena cava

It prevents back flow of blood from the aorta to the LV

Left AV valve or bicuspid valve

Right AV valve or tricuspid valve

It prevents back flow of blood from the RV to the RA

(mitral valve)

It prevents back flow of blood from the LV to the LA

Pulmonary semilunar valves

It prevents back flow of blood from the pulmonary trunk to the RV


Lesson 5

Cusps

Chordae tendineae

Papillary muscle

Trabeculae carneae

Transverse section, superior view


Lesson 5

Circumflex artery

Left coronary artery

Anterior I-V artery

Posterior I-V artery

Right coronary artery

Right coronary artery

Marginal arteries

Left coronary artery

Coronary sinus

Great cardiac vein

Circumflex artery

Anterior interventricular artery

Posterior interventricular artery

Small cardiac vein

Marginal artery

Middle cardiac vein

The Blood Supply to the Heart

Coronary Arteries and Coronary Veins


Lesson 5

Atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His

Right and left bundle branches

Sinoatrial node (SA node)

Atrioventricular node (AV node)

Purkinje fibers

The Conducting System

It connects electrically the atria to the ventricles.

They conduct the impulse to the Purkinje fibers.

It establishes the heart rate (pacemaker).

It delays the impulses to allow the atria to finish contracting before the ventricles start to contract.

They conduct the impulse to the lateral walls of the ventricles allowing the contraction to spread from the apex to the base.


Lesson 5

Impulse Conduction through the Heart

SA node fires and atrial activation begin.

Time 0

5

2

3

4

5

5

1

2

3

4

1

Stimulus spreads across the atrial surfaces and reaches the AV node.

Elapsed time: 50 msec

There is a 100 msec delay at the AV node. Atrial contraction begins. AV node fires.

Elapsed time : 150 msec

The impulse travels along the inter-ventricular septum within the AV bundle and the bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers.

Elapsed time: 175 msec

The impulse is distributed by Purkinje fibers and relayed through the ventricular myocardium. Atrial contraction is completed and ventricular contraction begins.

Elapsed time: 225 msec


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