Emergence of mass society
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Emergence of Mass Society. Chapter 20 Section 2. The New Urban Environment. Urban populations grew quickly because of migration to cities from rural areas Driven by a lack of jobs and a lack of land Living conditions improved in cities throughout the 1900s Cities created boards of health

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Emergence of Mass Society

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Emergence of mass society

Emergence of Mass Society

Chapter 20 Section 2


The new urban environment

The New Urban Environment

  • Urban populations grew quickly because of migration to cities from rural areas

    • Driven by a lack of jobs and a lack of land

  • Living conditions improved in cities throughout the 1900s

    • Cities created boards of health

      • City medical officers and building inspectors inspected living areas for health hazards

      • Required running water and internal draining systems to bring in clean water and expel sewage

        • Creation of underground sewage system


Social structure of mass society

Social Structure of Mass Society


Social structure

Social Structure

  • The New Elite

    • Made up 5% of population

    • Aristocrats joined by most successful industrialists, bankers, and merchants

      • Became leaders in government and military

    • Marriage helped unite aristocrats with successful businesspeople to create the new elite class


Social structure1

Social Structure

  • The Middle Classes

    • Upper middle class

      • Lawyers, doctors, business managers, engineers, architects, accountants, chemists

    • Lower middle class

      • Small shopkeepers, traders, prosperous peasants

      • Salespeople, bookkeepers, secretaries

    • People who believed in hard work and were regular churchgoers

      • Concerned with manners and etiquette


Social structure2

Social Structure

  • The Working Classes

    • Made up almost 80% of population

    • Landholding peasants, farm laborers, skilled artisans, unskilled laborers

    • Living conditions improved

      • Strikes for shorter hours and Saturdays off

      • Rise in wages allows money for leisure activities


Experiences of women

Experiences of Women

  • New job opportunities arose

    • Clerks, typists, secretaries, sales clerks

      • Mostly working class women

  • Marriage and the family

    • Many women still stayed at home

      • Number of children born to one woman declined

    • Family was central to middle class life

    • Children began work at age 9 or 10

      • Women worked until marriage


Experiences of women1

Experiences of Women

  • Movement for Women’s Rights

    • Movement is also called feminism

    • Initially argued on basis of natural rights

    • Later, fought for rights to divorce, own property, access to universities, entry into male-dominated occupations

    • By 1914, women have right to vote in some countries


Universal education

Universal education

  • Late 1800s, most Western governments set up state-financed primary schools

    • Boys and girls ages 6-12 were required to attend

    • Primary motivation for this was political

      • Allow more people to vote created a need for better-educated voters

    • Created a demand for teachers

      • Mostly women

        • Lower salaries than men

        • 1st female colleges were teacher-training schools

    • Increases literacy rates


New forms of leisure

New Forms of Leisure

  • Industrial system provided more time and money for leisure activities

  • Amusement parks were introduced

  • Professional team sports


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