Fables and allegories
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Fables and Allegories. An Introduction to Animal Farm. What do you know?. What do you know or remember about fables? Have you ever heard of an allegory before? What is satire?. The Ant and the Grasshopper: a Fable. Aesop.

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Fables and Allegories

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Fables and allegories

Fables and Allegories

An Introduction to Animal Farm


What do you know

What do you know?

  • What do you know or remember about fables?

  • Have you ever heard of an allegory before?

  • What is satire?


The ant and the grasshopper a fable

The Ant and the Grasshopper:a Fable


Aesop

Aesop

Probably the most well known writer of fables is Aesop, who lived in Ancient Greece.

He wrote “The Ant and the Grasshopper ” and lots of other fables still popular today.


Quotations from aesop

Quotations from Aesop

  • Don’t cry over spilt milk.

  • Don’t count your chickens before they’ve hatched.

  • Beware the wolf in sheep’s clothing.

  • Appearances are often deceiving.

  • Birds of a feather flock together.

  • Slow and steady wins the race.


Fable

Fable

  • Fables are very short

  • Fables feature nonhuman characters who have been personified to an extreme

    • such as animals, plants, inanimate objects, mythical creatures, or forces of nature who think, talk, act, fight, disobey, and obey

  • Fables end with a short moral lesson


The ant and the grasshopper is a fable

“The Ant and the Grasshopper” is a Fable!

  • It is very short

  • The animal characters talk, sing, think, plan, and feel

  • It teaches a moral or lesson: it is best to prepare for days of need.


Allegory

Allegory

  • Allegories are forms of extended metaphors, which continue throughout the whole text

  • An allegory is a piece of “art”work in which every part has at least twomeanings:

    • the literal meaning

    • and an abstract or symbolic meaning

  • The underlying meaning of an allegory has social, religious, or political significance


The ant and the grasshopper is an allegory too

The “Ant and the Grasshopper” is an Allegory, too!

Literal MeaningSymbolic Meaning

The Ant

Corn

The Grasshopper

Summer

Winter

= Hardworking People

= Work / Preparation

= Short-sighted People

= Opportunity Time

= Hard Times


Satire

Satire

  • Ridicules people, practices, governments, or institutions in order to reveal their weaknesses and provoke improvement

  • Uses wit, ridicule, irony, sarcasm, parody, reversal, and hyperbole

  • Reader must be careful to pay attention to hints and clues of the reality of the situation beyond the façade of a seemingly innocent story


Fables and allegories

Animal Farm is all 3: a fable, an allegory, and satire!


Animal farm as a f able

Animal Farm as a Fable:

  • Has animals: sheep, horses, cows, pigs, chickens, ravens, dogs, donkeys, ducks

  • Teaches many lessons:

    • A perfect society is only as perfect as the members that make it up.

    • No society will ever have real equality as long as some people take advantage of others.

    • Don’t always believe what you hear and see.

    • Absolute power corrupts absolutely.


Animal farm as an a llegory

Animal Farm as an Allegory:

  • Literal = Symbolic

  • Manor Farm = Russia

  • Animals Revolution = Russian Revolution

  • Animalism = Communism

  • Old Major = Karl Marx

  • Napoleon = Joseph Stalin

  • Snowball = Leo Trotsky

  • Squealer = Russian Propaganda and Media

  • Pigs = Communists

  • Horses = Workers

  • Windmill = Stalin’s 5 year improvement plan

  • Dogs = KGB or police


Animal farm as s atire

Animal Farm as Satire:

  • It ridicules society and those who try to make society better through the implementation of ideas

  • It ridicules Joseph Stalin’s reign of power

  • It parodies with wit Stalin and his government as evil pigs (literally and figuratively)

  • It shows reversal in that people can be animals in the way that they treat, exploit, and manipulate each other for their own gain

  • It exaggerates how a lack of literacy, reading, and education makes people easy targets for tyrants, dictators, and those who would use propaganda to manipulate the masses

  • It shows how rhetoric, the art of persuasive writing and speaking, and propaganda are more important to maintaining power than goodness, competence, fairness, and other virtues


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