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Navigable, Customizable TTS for Algebra

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Lois Frankel

Educational Testing Service (ETS)

Neil Soiffer

Design Science, Inc.

CSUN

March 1, 2013

- Project Motivation, Goals, and Background
- Development to date: discussion and demonstration
- Research Studies
- Next Steps

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlanohandouts

- Text-to-speech (TTS) vs. Math-to-speech
- Limited choice of syntax/semantics
- Limited screen-reader support
- Limited or no within-expression navigation
- Difficult to author
- Works in limited environments

- ETS Experience

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Focus on instruction, not assessment
- High school algebra
- Classroom-like synthesized speech “style”: ClearSpeak
- Customization features
- Interactive navigation
- Author in Word
- Playback in Word and IE

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Braille
- Support for other formats
- Authoring by people with visual impairment
- Solving math problems
- Tutoring/Curriculum
- Integration with standardized testing

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- The language of math on the web
- HTML5, eBooks
- Browser support & MathJax

- Designed for Accessibility
- Daisy players
- IE + MathPlayer + AT

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

<math><mroot><mi>x</mi><mn>3</mn></mroot></math>

- MathML Tools:
- Authoring: MathType+Word
- Audio rendering: MathPlayer

- Screen reader
- Window-Eyes (Word & IE)

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- How do you say…

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- How do you say…

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- How do you say…

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- How do you say…

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- How do you say…

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- How do you say…

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Rules
- Preferences
- Exact Speech

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Many ways to speak math
- ClearSpeak design philosophy
- Other design philosophies
- MathSpeak
- SimpleSpeech

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Authoring
- Using MathType in Word to enter math and use preferences
- Entering exact speech in Word

- Playback
- Word with Window-Eyes

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- ClearSpeak
- Author in Word
- Allow setting preference and exact speech

- Playback in Word and IE
- Interactive navigation

- Level
- Degree of complexity
- Relevance of speech variations
- Provide useful data
- Test comprehension, not computation
- Guide decisions about speech rules, preferences

Handous are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Compared ClearSpeak, MathSpeak, SimpleSpeech
- Fractions, exponents, parentheses
- Focus: was expression understood?
- Research/Statistical consultation
- 16 HS students: blind or low vision

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- ClearSpeak more understandable than Simple Speech or MathSpeak
- Students overall preferred ClearSpeak
- Students got more answers correct with ClearSpeak than with Simple Speech or MathSpeak

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

Familiarity and Understanding

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Can Prosody help understanding?
- Pauses
- Pitch
- Rate Changes
- Volume Changes

- Rejected pitch and volume changes
- non-speech sounds not an option
- Focus on pauses, rate-change vs. start/end

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

vs.

- With Pauses / rate change
- Expression 1
- Expression 2

- With “end root”
- Expression 1
- Expression 2

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

Nested Parentheses:

- Uniform Pauses
- Non-uniform pauses
- Non-uniform pauses and “First Paren”

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Simple char by char mode for beginners
- Powerful navigation features for experts
- Read
- Describe

- Multiple ways of moving
- Tree
- Character, Placemarker, Semantic

- After tree move: read or describe
- 10 Placemarkers, 2 Cursors, Where am I?

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Blind or Visually Impaired Students
- Teachers

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts

- Lois Frankel: [email protected]
- Neil Soiffer: [email protected]
- Beth Brownstein: [email protected]
- MathPlayer: http://www.dessci.com/en/products/mathplayer/
The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R324A110355 to the Educational Testing Service. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.

Handouts are available at: www.atia.org/orlandohandouts