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Gender Matters WHO s Gender Policy and the importance of gender in health interventions and research PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Gender Matters WHO s Gender Policy and the importance of gender in health interventions and research

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Gender Matters

WHOs Gender Policy

and the importance of gender

in health interventions and research


  • Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics of male and female animals: genitalia, reproductive organs, chromosomal complement, hormonal environment, etc.

  • Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, rights, responsibilities, possibilities, and limitations that, in a given society, are assigned to men and women -- in other words, to what is considered masculine and feminine in a given time and place.


  • (sex)(gender)


  • /


  • /


WHOs Gender Policy

  • ...WHO will, as a matter of policy and good public health practice, integrate gender considerations in all facets of its work.

  • integration of gender considerations, that is gender mainstreaming, must become standard practice in all policies and programmes.

  • all programmes will be expected to collect disaggregated data by sex, review and reflect on the gender aspects of their respective areas of work, and initiate work to develop content-specific materials.


  • A condition with many origins that significantly disables a large number of people

  • A major health problem with mostly social roots

  • A condition which disproportionately affects women, even though there would be no a priori reason to expect that it would


  • A disease which disproportionately affects men, but for which men and women exhibit very different trends over time - and which may, by implication, require different interventions for the two sexes

  • A disease which affects men and women about the same amount, in the aggregate, but which has very different implications for each

  • A problem which affects men and women at different rates and in different ways, but which is also perpetrated by one sex more than the other.


The message?

  • Looking at health with a gender perspective teaches us about factors that give rise to and sustain disease and disability -- factors that we might not notice without a gender perspective.

  • Knowing about these factors helps us to better fight disease and disability.

    In WHOs work -- Gender matters.



Higher prevalence among men in most countries

But differences in male-to-female drinking ratios were decrease


  • 6.5%1.3%

  • 2:1

  • 13.9%1.7%

  • (2005)



Health impact - sex, gender and drinking



Sex


  • FAS


Gender


    • ?

        • XXX

    • =?

      • PRADANo body care what she did










Changing norms may put women and girls at risk


1


2


3


Different motivations for taking up, continuing or ceasing to use alcohol

Exploiting gender and aspirations to promote drinking


What research is needed?

  • Differential impacts on men and women of different ages should be considered when deciding upon drinks pricing, health warnings, access and bans;

  • Women may benefit more from messages destroying the myth of the light wine, while men may be concerned by alcohols threats to virility;


  • Too often, the sole group singled out by sex is pregnant women, primarily driven by fetal health concerns. Drinking by the father should be addressed as well;

  • Community interventions are important to supplement the macro impacts of legislation. Media and community-based campaigns and workplace activities should ensure messages and actions work successfully with both sexes;


  • Awareness and advocacy are also needed. Investigative journalism offers scope for mass exposure about gender and drinking;

  • Community and school-based discussion of the health impacts of gender expectations for both males and females would foster greater self-awareness and, thus, resistance to gender-based advertising and harmful social norms.





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