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Second Phase Chinese Civil War. By: Tony. Context. Monarchy overthrow  Internal Strife/Weak Government First Phase – 1927 to 1937 Nationalists (GMD) winning vs Communists (CCP) Second Phase – 1937 to 1945 Nationalists open warfare vs Japanese Third Phase – 1945 to 1949

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Context l.jpg

Monarchy overthrow Internal Strife/Weak Government

First Phase – 1927 to 1937

Nationalists (GMD) winning vs Communists (CCP)

Second Phase – 1937 to 1945 Nationalists open warfare vsJapanese

Third Phase – 1945 to 1949

Communists win

Nationalists l.jpg

  • Headed by Chiang Kai-Shek (see previous page)

  • Wanted to unite China under Nationalist banner

  • Nationalists were initially winning

  • Nationalists were allied to the Communists, but later Chiang Kai-Shek was wary of the communists threat and purged many of them

  • Nationalists had support of landlords and people in cities (upper class) and most of their capital came from the citiesa

  • Had many benefits; efficiency and had support of West

Communists l.jpg

  • Headed by Mao-Ze-Dong (see previous page) and soldiers were treated well and felt part of the cause

  • Communists had support of the rural population (lower, middle class)

  • Large army yet unequipped with no help from the West

  • Communists fought the war against the Japanese through guerrilla warfare perceived as more effective than open warfare

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Second Phase – Peace Treaty

  • Second Phase 1937-1945

  • Peace Treaty between Nationalists and Communists to fight off Imperial Japan

  • An uneasy alliance was formed; which had little effect as there was little cooperation between Nationalists and Communists

  • Japanese took over city by city; severely crippling potential Nationalist capital

Methods of warfare l.jpg
Methods of warfare

  • Nationalist leader Chiang Kai Shek confronted Japanese full on, leading to heavy troop losses

  • Communist leader Mae Ze Dong was achieving gains through guerrilla warfare; at one point even mobilized up to 5 million soldiers

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Rise of popularity of Mao

  • Mao’s guerrilla warfare tactics proved successful

  • Mao’s land reform policy of giving farm land to thousands of hungry and starving farmers added to the momentum

  • Mao offered mistreated Nationalist troops allegiance to the Communist cause. Many agreed.

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  • At the end of World War 2; while Nationalists were extremely weakened and Communists were extremely popular the Nationalists and Communists resumed fighting

  • Communists defeated Nationalists in various battles

  • Nationalists fled to Taiwan where they still reside