Chemistry of life
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Chemistry of Life. Chemistry of Life. Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE EVERYTHING is made of matter. Chemistry of Life. Atoms – the SMALLEST particle that can exist and still be considered matter All LIVING and NONLIVING things are made of atoms.

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Chemistry of Life

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Chemistry of life

Chemistry of Life


Chemistry of life1

Chemistry of Life

  • Matter -- anything that has MASS and takes up SPACE

  • EVERYTHING is made of matter


Chemistry of life2

Chemistry of Life

  • Atoms – the SMALLEST particle that can exist and still be considered matter

  • All LIVING and NONLIVING things are made of atoms


Atoms have three components

Atoms -- have three components

  • ELECTRONS -- negatively charged

  • PROTONS -- positively charged; found in nucleus

  • NEUTRONS -- neutral; found in nucleus


Chemistry of life

Electrons

Nucleus

Protons & Neutrons

Energy Levels


Chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical reactions occur when bonds are FORMED or BROKEN.

  • This causes them to recombine into different substances.


Chemical reactions1

Chemical Reactions

  • Metabolism

    • All reactions that occur in an organisms.

  • These reactions break down and build molecules important to life.


Chemical reactions2

Chemical Reactions

  • Mixture:

    • A combination of a substance in which the individual components contain their own property.


Chemistry of the cell

Chemistry of the Cell

  • Solution:

    • A mixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance.

  • Solvent:

    • A substance that can dissolve other substances

  • Solute:

    • The substance that is dissolved


Chemistry of life

pH

  • Chemical reactions also depend on the pH of the environment within the organism.

  • pH-

    • A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is.


Chemistry of life

pH

  • The scale goes from 0-14

    • 0 being the most acidic

    • 14 being the most basic


Chemistry of life3

Chemistry of Life

  • Elements -- a substance that is made of only ONE kind of ATOM


Reading periodic table

Reading Periodic Table

Element

Hydrogen

Atomic

Number

1

H

Symbol


The human body

The Human Body

Oxygen - 65%

Carbon - 18.5

Nitrogen - 3%

Other - 1.5%

Phosphorus - 1%

Calcium - 1.5%


Major elements of life

Major Elements of Life

  • C = Carbon

  • H = Hydrogen

  • O = Oxygen

  • P = Phosphorus

  • K = Potassium


Major elements of life1

Major Elements of Life

  • I = Iodine

  • N = Nitrogen

  • S = Sulfur

  • Ca = Calcium


Major elements of life2

Major Elements of Life

  • Fe = Iron

  • Mg = Magnesium

  • Na = Sodium

  • Cl = Chlorine


Chemistry of life4

Chemistry of Life

  • Compounds – matter that is made of more than one kind of ATOM

  • Compounds are made by atoms sharing or taking ELECTRONS from other atom


Inorganic compounds

Inorganic Compounds

  • Water ( H2O )

  • Each molecule is made of two HYDROGEN atoms and one OXYGEN atom


Water h 2 0

Water –H20


Why is water so important to agriculture

Why is water so important to agriculture?

  • At least 75% of animal body mass is water

  • Plants contain 70-80% water

  • Transports nutrients and wastes


Why is water so important to agriculture1

Why is water so important to agriculture?

  • Dissolves compounds -- “Universal Solvent”

  • Regulates body temperature in animals

  • Provides structure for plants


Organic compounds

Organic Compounds

  • Organic Compounds contain carbon.

  • Carbon forms the structural backbone of all living things.


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Organic Compounds that contain:

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

They provide energy


Carbohydrates1

Carbohydrates

Three Types

Monosaccharides

Disaccharides

Polysaccharides


Carbohydrates2

Carbohydrates

Monosaccharides

simple SUGAR

contain C6H12O6

GLUCOSE, FRUCTOSE, AND GALACTOSE


Carbohydrates3

Carbohydrates

Disaccharides

double SUGAR

contain two RINGS

SUCROSE and LACTOSE


Carbohydrates4

Carbohydrates

Polysaccharides

complex CARBOHYDRATES

made of RINGSof SUGAR

STARCH, CELLULOSE, and GLYCOGEN


Proteins

Proteins

Basic building material for all living things.

Used forSTRUCTURE andFUNCTION

Made of H, O, C, N


Structure of proteins

Structure of Proteins

Amino Acids – building BLOCKS

20 different kinds – all have the same elements but in different amounts

Polypeptides – chains of AMINO ACIDS Joined by peptide bonds

Proteins – chains of POLYPEPTIDES

Used to make SKIN, HAIR, MUSCLE, ORGANS, etc.


Lipids

Lipids

FATTY molecules

used to store ENERGY

Made of long chains of H & Cfollowed by COOH

Do not DISSOLVE in WATER

Lipids have less OXYGEN than carbohydrates

Examples of Lipids are: FATS, OILS, AND WAXES


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

Store INFORMATIONthat controls CELL activities

Made of a PHOSPHATE a SUGAR, and a BASE.


Examples of nucleic acids are

Examples of Nucleic Acids are:

  • DNA :

    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • The master copy of an organisms information code.

  • Instructions to form all of an organisms structural proteins


Examples of nucleic acids are1

Examples of Nucleic Acids are:

  • RNA :

    • Ribonucleic Acid

  • This forms a copy of the DNA for use in making protein.


Atoms are the building block of life

Atoms are the building block of life!


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