Chemistry 101
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Chemistry 101. Dr. Don DeCoste 109 Chemistry Annex [email protected] 244-5959 2-3 pm Mondays and 10-11 am Thursdays By appointment. To Do…. http://chem.illinois.edu Slides on the website (after each lecture) Lab tomorrow (see Sig Fig video on website).

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Chemistry 101

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Chemistry 101

Chemistry 101

  • Dr. Don DeCoste

  • 109 Chemistry Annex

  • [email protected]

  • 244-5959

  • 2-3 pm Mondays and 10-11 am Thursdays

  • By appointment


To do

To Do…

  • http://chem.illinois.edu

  • Slides on the website (after each lecture)

  • Lab tomorrow (see Sig Fig video on website).

  • Lon-Capa (HW1 Type 2 due Wednesday, January 29 by 7 pm).


Chemistry some big ideas

Chemistry – Some Big Ideas

  • Atoms have structure.

    • Subatomic particles – electrons, protons, and neutrons.

    • Atoms are mostly open space.

    • Atoms can attract (and repel) one another.


Atomic structure so what

Atomic Structure–So What?

  • Bonds form within molecules.

  • Molecules are sticky (forces between molecules).

  • Different reactivities of elements (why is He in Mylar balloons?).

  • Fireworks.

  • Pools close during a thunderstorm.


Atomic structure how do we know

Atomic Structure: How Do We Know?

  • Thomson and the electron.

  • Rutherford and the nucleus: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pZj0u_XMbc


Simple model of an atom

Simple Model of an Atom


Not a correct view

NOT A Correct View


Clicker question

Clicker Question

How many of the following are true regarding the number of protons in an atom?

I.Identifies the element.

II.Gives the number of electrons in a neutral atom.

III.Gives the number of neutrons in a neutral atom.

IV.Tells the element’s atomic number.

A)0

B)1

C)2

D)3

E)4


Using the periodic table

Using The Periodic Table

  • Element: neutral; defined by the number of protons.

  • Ions: positive or negatively charged; comes from a differing number of electrons.

  • Isotopes: atoms of the same element with differing number of neutrons.


Forming a cation

Forming a Cation


Forming an anion

Forming an Anion


Isotopes of sodium

Isotopes of Sodium


Using the periodic table1

Using The Periodic Table

  • Symbol, name, number of protons (all of these are related).

  • Number of electrons in a neutral atom or in an ion.


Using the periodic table2

Using The Periodic Table


Using the periodic table3

Using The Periodic Table


Using the periodic table4

Using The Periodic Table

  • Formulas of some ionic compounds.

  • Naming simple compounds.

    [Chapter 5 material]


Three types of binary compounds

Three Types of Binary Compounds

  • Metal (Groups 1, 2, 3) and nonmetal

    • Simple naming: sodium chloride [NaCl], calcium bromide [CaBr2].

  • Metal (transition) and nonmetal

    • Roman numerals: iron(II) oxide [FeO].

  • Two nonmetals

    • Prefixes: carbon dioxide [CO2].


Three types of binary compounds1

Three Types of Binary Compounds

  • CaO

  • CoO

  • CO


Three types of binary compounds2

Three Types of Binary Compounds

  • CaOcalcium oxide

  • CoOcobalt(II) oxide

  • COcarbon monoxide


Type i compound

Type I Compound

CaOcalcium oxide


Type i compound1

Type I Compound

CaOcalcium oxide

Charge Balance:

Ca2+ O2-

(2+) + (2-) = 0


Type ii compound

Type II Compound

CoOcobalt(II) oxide


Type ii compound1

Type II Compound

CoOcobalt(II) oxide


Type ii compound2

Type II Compound

CoOcobalt(II) oxide

Co2+O2-

(2+) + (2-) = 0

Co2O3cobalt(III) oxide

Co3+ O2-

2(3+) + 3(2-) = 0


Type iii compound

Type III Compound

COcarbon monoxide


Type iii compound1

Type III Compound

COcarbon monoxide


Type i compound2

Type I Compound

Ca3P2calcium phosphide


Type ii compound3

Type II Compound


Type iii compound2

Type III Compound

N2O5

dinitrogenpentoxide


Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic Ions

  • Ammonium

  • Nitrate

  • Sulfate

  • Hydroxide

  • Phosphate

  • Carbonate


Clicker question1

Clicker Question

Which of the following is the correct name for the compound with the formula MgF2?

a) magnesium(II) fluoride

b)magnesium difluoride

c) magnesium fluoride

d)magnesium fluorite

e)magnesium fluorate


Clicker question2

Clicker Question

Which of the following is the correct name for the compound with the formula MgF2?

a) magnesium(II) fluoride

b)magnesium difluoride

c) magnesium fluoride

d)magnesium fluorite

e)magnesium fluorate


Clicker question3

Clicker Question

Which of the following is named incorrectly?

a) PCl3 phosphorus trichloride

b)KCl potassium(I) chloride

c) CuO copper(II) oxide

d)Cu2O copper(I) oxide

e)COcarbon monoxide


Clicker question4

Clicker Question

Which of the following is named incorrectly?

a) PCl3 phosphorus trichloride

b)KCl potassium(I) chloride

c) CuO copper(II) oxide

d)Cu2O copper(I) oxide

e)COcarbon monoxide


Uncertainty in measurement

Uncertainty in Measurement


Clicker question5

Clicker Question

How many significant figures should be reported?

a) 1

b)2

c) 3

d)4

e)5


Clicker question6

Clicker Question

How many significant figures should be reported?

a) 1

b)2

c) 3

d)4

e)5


Clicker question7

Clicker Question

What is the volume reading of the buret?

a) 20.14

b)20.15

c) 20.16

d)20.17

e)20.18


Clicker question8

Clicker Question

Leading zeroes are ____ significant, captive zeroes are ____ significant, and trailing zeros are ____ significant.

a) always, always, always

b)never, never, never

c) sometimes, sometimes, sometimes

d)never, sometimes, sometimes

e)never, always, sometimes


Clicker question9

Clicker Question

Leading zeroes are ____ significant, captive zeroes are ____ significant, and trailing zeros are ____ significant.

a) always, always, always

b)never, never, never

c) sometimes, sometimes, sometimes

d)never, sometimes, sometimes

e)never, always, sometimes


Clicker question10

Clicker Question

How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.030140 liters?

a) 3

b)4

c) 5

d)6

e)7


Clicker question11

Clicker Question

How many significant figures are in the measurement 0.030140 liters?

a) 3

b)4

c) 5

d)6

e)7


Clicker question12

Clicker Question

You add 82.4 mL of water in a graduated cylinder to 25 mL of water in a beaker. How much water should you report?

a) 100 mL (1 significant figure)

b)110 mL (2 significant figures)

c) 110. mL (3 significant figures)

d)107 mL (3 significant figures)

e)107.4 (4 significant figures)


Clicker question13

Clicker Question

You add 82.4 mL of water in a graduated cylinder to 25 mL of water in a beaker. How much water should you report?

a) 100 mL (1 significant figure)

b)110 mL (2 significant figures)

c) 110. mL (3 significant figures)

d)107 mL (3 significant figures)

e)107.4 (4 significant figures)


Restrictions on reactions

Restrictions on Reactions

  • Element conservation.

    CHEMISTRY 102-104:

  • Thermodynamics: Suniv must increase.

  • Kinetics: time is a factor for reactions to occur.


Chemistry some big ideas1

Chemistry – Some Big Ideas

  • Chemical changes are accompanied by energy changes.

    • Reactions are due to breaking bonds and forming bonds.

    • Exothermic versus endothermic.


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