Chapter 4 section 1 living things inherit traits in patterns
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Chapter 4 Section 1: Living Things Inherit Traits in Patterns. Objectives: 1. I can explain how traits are passed from parent to offspring. 2. I can describe how genes are distributed in sexual reproduction. 3. I can understand that some traits are dominant and others are recessive.

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Chapter 4 Section 1: Living Things Inherit Traits in Patterns

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Chapter 4 section 1 living things inherit traits in patterns

Chapter 4 Section 1: Living Things Inherit Traits in Patterns

  • Objectives:

  • 1. I can explain how traits are passed from parent to offspring.

  • 2. I can describe how genes are distributed in sexual reproduction.

  • 3. I can understand that some traits are dominant and others are recessive.

  • 4. I can design a model to determine genotype and phenotype.


Parents and offspring are similar

Parents and Offspring are Similar

  • Everyone has a unique combination of characteristics.

  • These characteristics are also known as traits.

  • Many of your traits may resemble your parents traits.

  • Examples: Hair color, Eye Color, Blood Type

  • These traits or characteristics are called inherited traits.


Parents and offspring are similar1

Parents and Offspring are Similar

  • The inheritance of traits happens through sexual reproduction

  • A cell containing genetic information from the mother and a cell containing genetic information from the father combine into a completely new cell.

  • That cell then becomes the offspring.


Parents and offspring are similar2

Parents and Offspring are Similar

  • Some traits are acquired, not inherited.

  • An acquired trait is one that is developed during your life.

  • Learned behaviors are one type of acquired trait.

  • Examples: Reading, Writing, Riding a Bike


Genes are on chromosome pairs

Genes are on Chromosome Pairs

  • A gene is a unit of heredity that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and codes for a particular product.

  • Heredity is the passing of genes from parents to offspring.

  • These genes code for the expression of traits

  • Cells contain pairs of chromosomes, with one chromosome coming from each of the parents.

  • Chromosome pairs are called homologs.


Genes are on chromosome pairs1

Genes are on Chromosome Pairs

  • The various form of the same gene are called alleles.

  • Ex.–The gene that determines height is located at site A on a pair of homologs. Though both homologs have the gene for height at site A, the genes may not be indentical.

  • Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.

  • Humans have 23 pairs, for a total of 46Chrom.

  • The 23rd pair of chomosomes in humans is the sex(gender) chromosome


Genes are on chromosome pairs2

Genes are on Chromosome Pairs

  • In humans, the sex chromosomes are called the X-chromosome and the Y-chromosome

  • A human female has 2 X-chromosomes, while a human male has 1 X-chromosome and 1 Y-chromosome.


Gregor mendel made some important discoveries about heredity

Gregor Mendel Made Some Important Discoveries About Heredity

  • The first major experiments investigating heredity were performed by a monk named Gregor Mendel

  • Mendel worked with 7 different traits

  • Mendel realized that each plant must have 2 factors for each possible trait, 1 factor from each parent

  • Some factors (traits) could be masked, such as dwarf height.


Phenotype and genotype

Phenotype and Genotype

  • An organisms phenotype describes the actual characteristics that can be observed.

  • Ex. – Eye color, height, feet size, etc.

  • Genotype is the name for the genes an organism has.


Dominant and recessive alleles

Dominant and Recessive Alleles

  • A dominant allele is one that is expressed in the phenotype even if only one copy is present in the genotype.

  • A recessive allele is one that is expressed in the phenotype only when two copies are present in the genotype.

  • If a dominant allele is paired with a recessive allele, then the dominant trait will appear in the phenotype.


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