chapter 4 section 1 living things inherit traits in patterns
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Chapter 4 Section 1: Living Things Inherit Traits in Patterns

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Chapter 4 Section 1: Living Things Inherit Traits in Patterns. Objectives: 1. I can explain how traits are passed from parent to offspring. 2. I can describe how genes are distributed in sexual reproduction. 3. I can understand that some traits are dominant and others are recessive.

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chapter 4 section 1 living things inherit traits in patterns
Chapter 4 Section 1: Living Things Inherit Traits in Patterns
  • Objectives:
  • 1. I can explain how traits are passed from parent to offspring.
  • 2. I can describe how genes are distributed in sexual reproduction.
  • 3. I can understand that some traits are dominant and others are recessive.
  • 4. I can design a model to determine genotype and phenotype.
parents and offspring are similar
Parents and Offspring are Similar
  • Everyone has a unique combination of characteristics.
  • These characteristics are also known as traits.
  • Many of your traits may resemble your parents traits.
  • Examples: Hair color, Eye Color, Blood Type
  • These traits or characteristics are called inherited traits.
parents and offspring are similar1
Parents and Offspring are Similar
  • The inheritance of traits happens through sexual reproduction
  • A cell containing genetic information from the mother and a cell containing genetic information from the father combine into a completely new cell.
  • That cell then becomes the offspring.
parents and offspring are similar2
Parents and Offspring are Similar
  • Some traits are acquired, not inherited.
  • An acquired trait is one that is developed during your life.
  • Learned behaviors are one type of acquired trait.
  • Examples: Reading, Writing, Riding a Bike
genes are on chromosome pairs
Genes are on Chromosome Pairs
  • A gene is a unit of heredity that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and codes for a particular product.
  • Heredity is the passing of genes from parents to offspring.
  • These genes code for the expression of traits
  • Cells contain pairs of chromosomes, with one chromosome coming from each of the parents.
  • Chromosome pairs are called homologs.
genes are on chromosome pairs1
Genes are on Chromosome Pairs
  • The various form of the same gene are called alleles.
  • Ex.–The gene that determines height is located at site A on a pair of homologs. Though both homologs have the gene for height at site A, the genes may not be indentical.
  • Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.
  • Humans have 23 pairs, for a total of 46Chrom.
  • The 23rd pair of chomosomes in humans is the sex(gender) chromosome
genes are on chromosome pairs2
Genes are on Chromosome Pairs
  • In humans, the sex chromosomes are called the X-chromosome and the Y-chromosome
  • A human female has 2 X-chromosomes, while a human male has 1 X-chromosome and 1 Y-chromosome.
gregor mendel made some important discoveries about heredity
Gregor Mendel Made Some Important Discoveries About Heredity
  • The first major experiments investigating heredity were performed by a monk named Gregor Mendel
  • Mendel worked with 7 different traits
  • Mendel realized that each plant must have 2 factors for each possible trait, 1 factor from each parent
  • Some factors (traits) could be masked, such as dwarf height.
phenotype and genotype
Phenotype and Genotype
  • An organisms phenotype describes the actual characteristics that can be observed.
  • Ex. – Eye color, height, feet size, etc.
  • Genotype is the name for the genes an organism has.
dominant and recessive alleles
Dominant and Recessive Alleles
  • A dominant allele is one that is expressed in the phenotype even if only one copy is present in the genotype.
  • A recessive allele is one that is expressed in the phenotype only when two copies are present in the genotype.
  • If a dominant allele is paired with a recessive allele, then the dominant trait will appear in the phenotype.
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