Colligative properties
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Colligative Properties. Vocabulary. Hypotonic – a cell that is placed in a solution and bursts. Raoult’s Law – states that the magnitude of vapor pressure reduction is proportional to the solution’s concentration. Isotonic – a solution where osmosis does not occur

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Colligative Properties

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Colligative properties

Colligative Properties


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • Hypotonic – a cell that is placed in a solution and bursts.

  • Raoult’s Law – states that the magnitude of vapor pressure reduction is proportional to the solution’s concentration.

  • Isotonic – a solution where osmosis does not occur

  • Freezing Point - the temperature at which vapor pressure of solid and liquid phase are the same


Vocabulary1

Vocabulary

  • Nonvolatile – a substance that will not become a gas under existing conditions

  • Hypertonic – a cell that is placed in a solution and shrinks

  • Osmosis – the net flow of molecules from less concentrated to more concentration solutions

  • Boiling Point – the temperature at which vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the eternal pressure on its surface


Boiling point elevation

Boiling Point Elevation

  • Boiling Point Elevation – the boiling point of a liquid will be higher when another compound is added

  • ΔT = Kb • m • i

  • ΔT = change in temperature

  • Kb = boiling point constant for the solvent

  • m = molality (mol of solute ÷ kg of solvent)

  • i = number of ions in solute


Example 1

Example #1

  • What is the boiling point elevation for a solution containing 125g of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) in 1200g of water? Kb for water = 0.52 C/m

  • Convert 125 g of C2H6O2 to moles.

    2. Convert 1200 g of water to kg.

    3. Solve for m

    4. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kb • m • i


Example 2

Example #2

  • What is the boiling point elevation for a solution containing 125g of salt in 600g of water? Kb for water= 0.52 C/m

  • Convert 125 g of NaClto moles.

    2. Convert 600 g of water to kg.

    3. Solve for m

    3. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kb • m • i


Freezing point depression

Freezing Point Depression

  • Freezing Point Depression - the freezing point of a liquid will be lower when another compound is added

  • ΔT = Kf • m • i

  • ΔT = change in temperature

  • Kf = constant for that particular solvent

  • m = molality (mol of solute ÷ kg of solvent)

  • i = number of ions in solute


Example 11

Example #1

  • What is the freezing point depression when 85.3g of oxygen is dissolved in 1500g of water? Kf for water = 1.86 C/m

  • Convert 85.3 g of oxygen to moles.

    2. Convert 1500 g of water to kg.

    3. Solve for m

    4. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kf• m • i


Example 21

Example #2

  • What is the freezing point depression of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.3 g of Ca(NO3)2 in 115 g of water? Kf for water= 1.86 °C/m.

  • Convert 11.3 g of Ca(NO3)2 to moles.

  • Convert 115 g of water to kg.

    3. Solve for m

    4. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kf• m • i


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