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Colligative Properties

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Colligative Properties

- Hypotonic – a cell that is placed in a solution and bursts.
- Raoult’s Law – states that the magnitude of vapor pressure reduction is proportional to the solution’s concentration.
- Isotonic – a solution where osmosis does not occur
- Freezing Point - the temperature at which vapor pressure of solid and liquid phase are the same

- Nonvolatile – a substance that will not become a gas under existing conditions
- Hypertonic – a cell that is placed in a solution and shrinks
- Osmosis – the net flow of molecules from less concentrated to more concentration solutions
- Boiling Point – the temperature at which vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the eternal pressure on its surface

- Boiling Point Elevation – the boiling point of a liquid will be higher when another compound is added
- ΔT = Kb • m • i
- ΔT = change in temperature
- Kb = boiling point constant for the solvent
- m = molality (mol of solute ÷ kg of solvent)
- i = number of ions in solute

- What is the boiling point elevation for a solution containing 125g of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) in 1200g of water? Kb for water = 0.52 C/m
- Convert 125 g of C2H6O2 to moles.
2. Convert 1200 g of water to kg.

3. Solve for m

4. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kb • m • i

- What is the boiling point elevation for a solution containing 125g of salt in 600g of water? Kb for water= 0.52 C/m
- Convert 125 g of NaClto moles.
2. Convert 600 g of water to kg.

3. Solve for m

3. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kb • m • i

- Freezing Point Depression - the freezing point of a liquid will be lower when another compound is added
- ΔT = Kf • m • i
- ΔT = change in temperature
- Kf = constant for that particular solvent
- m = molality (mol of solute ÷ kg of solvent)
- i = number of ions in solute

- What is the freezing point depression when 85.3g of oxygen is dissolved in 1500g of water? Kf for water = 1.86 C/m
- Convert 85.3 g of oxygen to moles.
2. Convert 1500 g of water to kg.

3. Solve for m

4. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kf• m • i

- What is the freezing point depression of a solution prepared by dissolving 11.3 g of Ca(NO3)2 in 115 g of water? Kf for water= 1.86 °C/m.
- Convert 11.3 g of Ca(NO3)2 to moles.
- Convert 115 g of water to kg.
3. Solve for m

4. Plug into the formula ΔT = Kf• m • i