HTML

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2. What is HTML?. HTML stands for Hypertext Markup LanguageAn HTML file is a text file containing markup tagsThe markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the pageHTML files must have an htm or html file extension.html is preferred.htm is from very old operating systems that can only hand

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1. 8-Sep-12 HTML

2. 2 What is HTML? HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language An HTML file is a text file containing markup tags The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page HTML files must have an htm or html file extension .html is preferred .htm is from very old operating systems that can only handle “8+3” names (eight characters, dot, three characters) HTML files can be created using a simple text editor Formatted text, such as Microsoft Word’s .doc files, cannot be used in HTML files

3. 3 HTML Tags HTML tags are used to mark up HTML elements HTML tags are surrounded by angle brackets, < and > Most HTML tags come in pairs, like <b> and </b> The tags in a pair are the start tag and the end tag The text between the start and end tags is the element content The tags act as containers (they contain the element content), and should be properly nested HTML tags are not case sensitive; <b> means the same as <B>

4. 4 Some simple tags <h1> through <h6> : Headers, from largest to smallest <b> Boldface <i> Italic <p> Paragraph <pre> Preformatted text; preserve spaces and don’t wrap lines

5. 5 Structure of an HTML document An HTML document is contained within <html> tags It consists of a <head> and a <body>, in that order The <head> typically contains a <title>, which is used as the title of the browser window Almost all other content goes in the <body> Hence, a fairly minimal HTML document looks like this: <html> <head> <title>My Title</title> </head> <body> Hello, World! </body> </html>

6. 6 HTML documents are trees

7. 7 Whitespace Whitespace is any non-printing characters (space, tab, newline, and a few others) HTML treats all whitespace as word separators, and automatically flows text from one line to the next, depending on the width of the page To group text into paragraphs, with a blank line between paragraphs, enclose each paragraph in <p> and </p> tags To force HTML to use whitespace exactly as you wrote it, enclose your text in <pre> and </pre> tags (“pre” stands for “preformatted”) <pre> also uses a monospace font <pre> is handy for displaying programs

8. 8 Lists Two of the kinds of lists in HTML are ordered, <ol> to </ol>, and unordered, <ul> to </ul> Ordered lists typically use numbers: 1, 2, 3, ... Unordered lists typically use bullets (•) The elements of a list (either kind) are surrounded by <li> and </li> Example: The four main food groups are: <ul> <li>Sugar</li> <li>Chips</li> <li>Caffeine</li> <li>Chocolate</li> </ul>

9. 9 Attributes Some markup tags may contain attributes of the form name="value" to provide additional information Example: To have an ordered list with letters A, B, C, ... instead of numbers, use <ol type="A"> to </ol> For lowercase letters, use type="a" For Roman numerals, use type="I" For lowercase Roman numerals, use type="i" In this example, type is an attribute JavaScript can most easily refer to HTML elements that use a name or id attribute

10. 10 Links To link to another page, enclose the link text in <a href="URL"> to </a> Example: I'm taking <a href = "http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~matuszek/cit597.html">Dr. Dave's CIT597 course</a> this semester. Link text will automatically be underlined and blue (or purple if recently visited) To link to another part of the same page, Insert a named anchor: <a name="refs">References</a> And link to it with: <a href="#refs">My references</a> To link to a named anchor from a different page, use <a href="PageURL#refs">My references</a>

11. 11 Images Images (pictures) are not part of an HTML page; the HTML just tells where to find the image To add an image to a page, use: <img src="URL" alt="text description" width="150" height="100"> The src attribute is required; the others are optional Attributes may be in any order The URL may refer to any .gif, .jpg, or .png file Other graphic formats are not recognized The alt attribute provides a text representation of the image if the actual image is not downloaded The height and width attributes, if included, will improve the display as the page is being downloaded If height or width is incorrect, the image will be distorted There is no </img> end tag, because <img> is not a container

12. 12 Entities Certain characters, such as <, have special meaning in HTML To put these characters into HTML without any special meaning, we have to use entities Here are some of the most common entities: < represents < > represents > & represents & ' represents ' " represents "   represents a “nonbreaking space”--one that HTML does not treat as whitespace

13. 13 Forms <form> is just another kind of HTML tag HTML forms are used to create (rather primitive) GUIs on Web pages Usually the purpose is to ask the user for information The information is then sent back to the server A form is an area that can contain form elements The syntax is: <form parameters> ...form elements... </form> Form elements include: buttons, checkboxes, text fields, radio buttons, drop-down menus, etc Other kinds of HTML tags can be mixed in with the form elements A form usually contains a Submit button to send the information in he form elements to the server The form’s parameters tell JavaScript how to send the information to the server (there are two different ways it could be sent) Forms can be used for other things, such as a GUI for simple programs

14. 14 Forms and JavaScript The JavaScript language can be used to make pages that “do something” You can use JavaScript to write complete programs, but... Usually you just use snippets of JavaScript here and there throughout your Web page JavaScript code snippets can be attached to various form elements For example, you might want to check that a zipcode field contains a 5-digit integer before you send that information to the server Microsoft calls its version of JavaScript “active scripting” HTML forms can be used without JavaScript, and JavaScript can be used without HTML forms, but they work well together JavaScript for HTML is covered in a separate lecture

15. 15 The <form> tag The <form arguments> ... </form> tag encloses form elements (and probably other HTML as well) The arguments to form tell what to do with the user input action="url" (required) Specifies where to send the data when the Submit button is clicked method="get" (default) Form data is sent as a URL with ?form_data info appended to the end Can be used only if data is all ASCII and not more than 100 characters method="post" Form data is sent in the body of the URL request Cannot be bookmarked by most browsers target="target" Tells where to open the page sent as a result of the request target= _blank means open in a new window target= _top means use the same window

16. 16 The <input> tag Most, but not all, form elements use the input tag, with a type="..." argument to tell which kind of element it is type can be text, checkbox, radio, password, hidden, submit, reset, button, file, or image Other common input tag arguments include: name: the name of the element value: the “value” of the element; used in different ways for different values of type readonly: the value cannot be changed disabled: the user can’t do anything with this element Other arguments are defined for the input tag but have meaning only for certain values of type

17. 17 Text input

18. 18 Buttons A submit button: <input type="submit" name="Submit" value="Submit"> A reset button: <input type="reset" name="Submit2" value="Reset"> A plain button: <input type="button" name="Submit3" value="Push Me"> submit: send data reset: restore all form elements to their initial state button: take some action as specified by JavaScript

19. 19 Checkboxes A checkbox: <input type="checkbox" name="checkbox” value="checkbox" checked> type: "checkbox" name: used to reference this form element from JavaScript value: value to be returned when element is checked Note that there is no text associated with the checkbox—you have to supply text in the surrounding HTML

20. 20 Radio buttons Radio buttons:<br> <input type="radio" name="radiobutton" value="myValue1"> male<br> <input type="radio" name="radiobutton" value="myValue2" checked> female If two or more radio buttons have the same name, the user can only select one of them at a time This is how you make a radio button “group” If you ask for the value of that name, you will get the value specified for the selected radio button As with checkboxes, radio buttons do not contain any text

21. 21 Drop-down menu or list A menu or list: <select name="select"> <option value="red">red</option> <option value="green">green</option> <option value="BLUE">blue</option> </select> Additional arguments: size: the number of items visible in the list (default is "1") multiple: if set to "true", any number of items may be selected (default is "false")

22. 22 Hidden fields <input type="hidden" name="hiddenField" value="nyah"> <-- right there, don't you see it? What good is this? All input fields are sent back to the server, including hidden fields This is a way to include information that the user doesn’t need to see (or that you don’t want her to see) The value of a hidden field can be set programmatically (by JavaScript) before the form is submitted

23. 23 A complete example <html> <head> <title>Get Identity</title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1"> </head> <body> <p><b>Who are you?</b></p> <form method="post" action=""> <p>Name: <input type="text" name="textfield"> </p> <p>Gender: <input type="radio" name="gender" value="m">Male <input type="radio" name="gender" value="f">Female</p> </form> </body> </html>

24. 24 The rest of HTML HTML is a large markup language, with a lot of options If you aren’t already familiar with it, you should study one or more of the tutorials (there are many online) Your browser’s View -> Source command is a great way to see how things are done in HTML HTML pages often contain JavaScript code There is no such “thing” as DHTML (Dynamic HTML) DHTML is simply HTML with several other technologies mixed in, such as JavaScript

25. 25 The End

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