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MBA《 管理经济学 》 第五部分 垄断厂商与自然垄断 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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MBA《 管理经济学 》 第五部分 垄断厂商与自然垄断. 垄断的定义与特点. 垄断是一种市场结构,其特点是在存在巨大进入壁垒的市场中仅有一家厂商生产高度差异化的产品。 垄断者的产品没有近似替代品,所以垄断者面对的需求曲线将有很大的负斜率。 垄断市场结构可被视为在可看到的市场结构范围内与完全竞争相对的另一个极端。. 垄断市场的特点. 1) 一种商品只有一个生产者 市场需求曲线就是垄断厂商的需求曲线. 2) 没有替代品 垄断者的商品和其它商品有着很高的差异性,需求交叉弹性等于零. 垄断市场的特点. 3) 巨大的行业壁垒, 使潜在的竞争者不能进入市场。.

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MBA《 管理经济学 》 第五部分 垄断厂商与自然垄断

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Mba

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2)


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P = 100 - Q

60

59

D

; ;

= =

MR < P

TR1 = 60 x 40 = 2400

TR2 = 59 x 41 = 2419

19

40 41

Q

, MR = 19MR < P


Mba

:

AR= PQ/Q= a-bQ

MR =dTR/dQ

= d(aQ -bQ2 )/dQ

= a - 2bQ

P

DAR

MR

O

Q


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MR=MCQMPM

MC

:Max = TR - TC

PM

dP/dQ = 0

D

d/dQ = dTR/dQ - dTC/dQ

0 = MR - MC

MR

MR = MC

QM

MR


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I WILL


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P

MR=100-2Q

Q = 100 - P

: MC = AC = 10

MR = 100-2Q, MC=10

MR=MC 100-2Q = 10 Q=45

p = 55 = 2025

1012.5

P=100-Q

55

D

10

AC=MC

0

45

Q

MR


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MC

AC

D

MR


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MR = MC

TR = PxQ

MR = P + (dP/dQ)Q = P [ 1 + (dP/dQ)(Q/P) ] =P[ 1 + 1/ E P ]

EP ,MRP

P [ 1 + 1/ EP ] = MC


E p mr p mc

EP MR = P = MC

EP = - 3

MC = 100

PM ?

  • MR = MC

  • P[ 1 + 1/( - 3) ] = 100

  • P[ 2/3 ] = 100

    , P = 150.

  • EP = -5, 125.

  • , MC.


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MR=MC=P1+1/ED

11/ED-1) -


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PQ

MR = d(PQ)/dQ

= P + Q dP/dQ

= P (1 + 1/Edp)

MR=MC

MC= P (1 + 1/Edp)

P= MC/(1 + 1/Edp)

(P-MC)/P = 1/ Edp


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L = (P-MC)/P

P-MC


Mba

-10

P = MC/(1-0.1)=1.11MC

10~11%

-5

P =MC/(1-0.2)=1.25MC

25%

-1 -1.1

P = 11 MC !!!!


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/


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MC

  • :CS PS

  • P>MC,

  • (DWSL)

CS

PM

PS

D

DWSL

MR

QM


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MC

MC

Q


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,


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()


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15

10

ATC

5

D

1 2 3 4 Q()


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LRAC

LRMC


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, P = MC

, ,

, , P = AC

P = AC

T.V.


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  • ,,

  • ,


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  • (R)(C)V-D(k),DV

  • R = C + (V - D)k


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100 16

300 12

800 9

1200 5

  • :

P

16

12

9

5

D

Q

100 400 1200


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  • : , ,


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?

P1

P2

b+

b

Q2 Q1


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  • P(peak) = +

  • P(off-peak) =

    • :

    • :


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  • (Sandra Poncet)199746352080199721198711


Mba

  • 199619857331985545813835670


Mba

(ABC)(PmPcCB)

D

Pm

C

A

Pc

B

Qm

Qc


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90

1 1995-1998/9

/ GDP%

560-1120 0.75-1.50

740-900 1.0-1.2

215-325 0.29-0.43

75-100 0.1-0.13

75-100 0.1-0.13

1300-2020 1.7-2.7

::GDP75000


Mba

,19982001

2

() GDP

1998-99 27.4

2001 350 037

1998-99 21.7

2001 101 011

2001 31.5 003

530 060


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198519961995-l99914294285979.l

3 2000

() () ()

12830 9371 3459 281.8 97.5

16359 6988 113.2 79.1

23454 14083 11.7 16.5

13920 4549 187.1 85.1

278.2

2001


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