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Implementation of Developmentally Appropriate Behavioral Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths. Bruce Stiller, Ph.D. Barriers to HS Implementation. Lack of successful models schools can copy

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Implementation of Developmentally Appropriate Behavioral Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

Bruce Stiller, Ph.D.


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Barriers to HS Implementation Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Lack of successful models schools can copy

    • Most successful models are at elementary or middle school level, so the images and language are not developmentally appropriate

  • Multiple initiatives with heavy focus on academic achievement

  • More effort needed to Sustain

  • Communication systems more complex

    • More adults creates consistency challenge

    • More departments


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Myths Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Myth 1: High school students don’t like being rewarded or acknowledged

  • Myth 2: But they already know (or should know) what is expected!!!!

  • Myth 3: PBS is completely different in high schools


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Key Features of PBS in High Schools Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Developmentally Appropriate

  • Administrative Support

    • Presence

    • Allocation of Resources

  • Representative Team (How is the school organized? Small schools? Departments?)

  • Student Voice (Student Team Member or Advisory Council)

  • Keep it Visible and Fun!!!

  • Ongoing Coaching

  • Address Issues that are important to Staff (attendance; classroom behavior/achievement)

  • Address Issues that are important to Students (harassment/bullying)


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School-Wide Systems Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

Classroom

System

Specific Setting

System

Individual Student

System

Positive Behavior Support

PBS

Practices

Expections


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Reinforcers Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • PRIDE tickets (students hoarding them)

  • Highlander T-Shirts

  • CD’s

  • Positive Call Home

  • Tickets to Dance; Sporting Events

  • Coupons to local food chains (pizza; Burger King; Taco Bell; etc.)


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Academic Learning Time: Typical School Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

1152 Instructional Hours in the School Year (6.4 hours x 180 days)

- 64 Absenteeism (1 day/month x 10 months)

= 1088 Attendance Time (Time in School)

- 150Non-instructional time (50 min./day for passing time, lunch, etc)

= 938 Allocated Time (Time scheduled for teaching)

- 234 (25% of allocated time for getting started, transition between instructional activities, discipline)

= 704 Instructional time (time actually teaching)

- 176 Time off task (Engaged 75% of time)

= 528 Engaged Time (On task)

- 105.6 Unsuccessful Engaged Time (Success Rate 80%)

= 422.4 Academic Learning Time

2.34 hrs. of instructionally productive time per day (422.4/180 days)

Efficiency Rating = 37%

Education Resources Inc., 2005


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Academic Learning Time: Effective School Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

1152 School Year (6.4 hours x 180 days)

- 64 Absenteeism (1 day/month x 10 months)

= 1088 Attendance Time (Time in School)

- 150 Non-instructional time (50 minutes/day for passing time, lunch)

= 938 Allocated Time (Time scheduled for teaching)

- 141 (15% of allocated time for administration, transition, discipline --

9 minutes/hour)

= 797 Instructional time (actually teaching - 141 hrs. lost v. 234 hrs. lost)

- 79 Time off task (Engaged 90% of time)

= 718 Engaged Time (79 hrs. lost v. 176 hrs. lost)

- 72 Unsuccessful Engaged Time (Success Rate 90% = 72 hrs.

lost v. 105 hrs. lost at 80% Success Rate)

= 646 Academic Learning Time (646 hrs. vs. 422 hrs.)

Efficiency Rating = 56%

Education Resources Inc., 2005


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The Difference: Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths Typical vs. Effective Schools

  • Unallocated Non-Instructional Time

    • 75% vs. 85% = 93 more hours

      • Difference in 15 minutes vs. 9 minutes/hour

      • Teaching expectations, teaching transitions, managing appropriate and inappropriate behavior efficiently

  • Engagement Rate

    • 75% vs. 90% = 97 more hours

      • Management of groups, pacing

  • Success Rate

    • 80% vs. 90% = 34 more hours

      • Appropriate placement, effective teaching

  • So what?

    • 224 hours more instructionally productive hours (646 vs. 422)

    • 34% more ALT

    • 95 more days in school (based on 2.34 hours of instructionally productive time per day!!)

Education Resources Inc., 2005


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Basic Management Practices Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Expectations and routines have been explicitly defined

  • Expectations and routines have been practiced to mastery

  • Scanning and movement strategies allow for maximum supervision

  • Students receive high rates of feedback

  • Frequent Review of Expectations --especially following a bad day

  • Pacing -- minimum of Dead Air allow for Think Time when appropriate

  • Academic Errors: Correct responses are taught before moving on


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Establish Routines: Supports in High Schools: Exposing the MythsBuild a Predictable Environment

Define and teach classroom routines

Entering the classroom

What to do if you do not have materials

What to do if you need help

What to do if you need to go to the bathroom

What to do if you are handing in late material

What to do if someone is bothering you.

Signals for moving through different activities.

Specific expectations for different activities (directed practice v. seatwork v. group work v. lab work, etc.)

How to determine if you are doing well in class

Exiting the classroom

Establish a signal for obtaining class attention

Teach effective transitions.


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Entering the Classroom Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Quiet Voices

  • Deposit homework in the homework basket

  • Quietly find your seat

  • Scan the whiteboard for warm-up activity instructions


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When Finished with Work Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Proof read completed work and correct any errors

  • Quietly deposit work in grading basket

  • Quietly read library selection


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Active Supervision Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Movement (maximize visual contact at all times -- avoid routines that compromise scanning ex: five students at front of room waiting for T’s attention)

  • Scanning

  • Interaction/Differentiation/Scaffolding (especially when assignment is given, check in ASAP with learners who are likely to struggle with assignment)


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Alpha vs. Supports in High Schools: Exposing the MythsBeta COMMANDS

  • Alphacommands are short and clear; neutral tone (e.g., “Stay on topic -- Columbus Day”)

  • Beta commands are wordy, vague and often convey a feeling of frustration (e.g., If you won’t listen, you won’t learn a darn thing. You aren’t trying. Pay attention and keep up”)


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Points of Intervention Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Prevention (before the problem behavior occurs)

  • Correction (after the problem behavior occurs)


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The two most powerful tools for changing behavior are: Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

Teaching

Reinforcement

The least powerful tool for changing behavior is:

Punishment

What Works


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Reinforcement Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths(success)

Discipline Works When ….

Prevention creates more Positive than negative consequences

Punishment

(Failure)

4 : 1


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Correction Strategies Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Get privacy

  • Start with a positive statement (“thanks for stopping”)

  • State the appropriate behavior (“remember to speak respectfully at school” or “we’re trying hard to clean up the language -- help us out”)

  • If the student cooperates acknowledge compliance (“thanks” or “perfect” or thumbs up)

  • If the student escalates, review choices “We can solve this with a conference and some agreements if you are able to cooperate. Otherwise, consequences will be more severe and it will become a lot more complicated for both of us.”

  • If student becomes defiant (leaves without permission or continues to argue after the choice prompt is given -- Write a Level III Office Discipline Referral. Level of consequence to be determined by administrator based on specific circumstances


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Punishment Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Reliance on Punishment as the primary behavior change strategy is unlikely to be effective.

  • The appropriate use of consequences has two potentially useful purposes:

    • To ensure that problem behavior is not rewarded

    • To minimize disruption to the educational environment


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Bullying & Harassment Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

30% of youth in the United States are estimated to be involved in bullying as either a bully, a target.

Staff are likely to underestimate the extent of harassment and bullying. One study showed:

58% of students perceived teasing, spreading lies or rumors, or saying mean things to be problems.

Only 25% of teachers perceived these behaviors to be problems.

1Nansel et al. (2001). Bullying Behaviors Among U.S. Youth. JAMA.


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What “Rewards” Social Aggression? Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

  • Attention from Bystanders (who may or may not be actually present)

  • Reactions from the Recipient

    • Laughing it off

    • Overreacting

  • Access to items - tangibles; activities


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Core Features - Bully Prevention Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths

Remove the reinforcements that maintain socially aggressive behavior.

Student “Buy-In” is critical.

Impact Bystander behavior.

School-wide Stop Signal/Catch Phrase students use to interrupt social aggression.


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Use Another Word Video Supports in High Schools: Exposing the Myths


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