Chapter 24
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Chapter 24. Section 4: From Isolationism to War. Neutrality Acts. 1935- banned the US from providing weapons to nations at war 1936- banned loans to such nations. 1937- permitted trade with fighting nations in nonmilitary goods, as long as they paid cash & transported the cargo Cash & carry

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Chapter 24

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Chapter 24

Chapter 24

Section 4: From Isolationism to War


Neutrality acts

Neutrality Acts

  • 1935- banned the US from providing weapons to nations at war

  • 1936- banned loans to such nations


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  • 1937- permitted trade with fighting nations in nonmilitary goods, as long as they paid cash & transported the cargo

    • Cash & carry

  • Prevented the US from selling arms even to nations that were defending themselves from aggression


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  • FDR later said that it encouraged aggression

    • 1938- Italy conquered Ethiopia, Japan had China, & Germany took over Austria & the Sudetenland


American involvement grows

American Involvement Grows

  • Our economy was recovering

  • Germany & Japan stepped up their aggression

    • Softened our isolationist views

  • Sept. 1939 Germany invaded Poland

    • FDR looked for ways to aid the Allies


Debating the american role

Debating the American Role

  • FDR asked for a revision of the Neutrality Acts

    • Congress repealed the arms embargo & provided GB & France with the weapons they needed


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  • Later allowed our merchant ships to transport these purchases

  • Still prevents us from lending money

  • June 1940- France fell to Germany & Hitler prepared to invade Britain


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    • Sept. 3- sent 50 old destroyers to GB in return for permission to build bases on British territory in the western hemisphere

    • Isolationists formed the American First Committee to block further aid


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    • Election of 1940

      • FDR & Wendell Wilkie both supported aiding GB

        • Disagreed on how much

        • Both knew that war would be hard to avoid


    Lend lease

    Lend-Lease

    • FDR won re-election to a third term

      • Pushed for a greater involvement to the Allies

    • Plan- providing war supplies to GB without any payment in return


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    • Authorized the President to aid nations’ whose defense he believed was vital to American security

    • By the end, the US loaned $49 billion to 40 nations


    Japan attacks pearl harbor

    Japan Attacks Pearl Harbor

    • July 1940- FDR began limiting what Japan could buy from the US

    • Sept. ended sale of scrap iron & steel- hoped to stop further expansion


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    • FDR froze Japanese financial assets in the US & cut off all oil shipments

      • Led Japan to turn to the Dutch East Indies for supplies


    Final weeks of peace

    Final Weeks of Peace

    • In Oct. 1941 Gen. Hideki Tojo took power in Japan who supported a war with the US

    • A year earlier we cracked the top secret Japanese code that allowed us to read intercepted diplomatic messages


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    • Nov. 27- Leaders knew that the Japanese aircraft carriers were on the move in the Pacific

      • Fleet of 6 aircraft carriers & 20 other battleships

        • Target was Pearl Harbor- home of the US Pacific Fleet


    The attack

    The Attack

    • Shortly after 7a.m. on Dec. 7, 1941, an American radio operator on Oahu noticed a large blip on his radar screen

      • The officer in charge believed they were American & said to ignore them


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    • Less than 1 hour later, 180 Japanese planes attacked

      • Half of the Pacific Fleet was anchored at Pearl

      • By 9:45 the attack was over

        • 2,400 Americans were killed & 1,200 wounded


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    • 200 warships were damaged or destroyed

      • 18 sunk or heavily damaged

      • 8 of the 9 battleships

    • Japan lost 29 planes


    Us declares war

    US Declares War

    • “A date which will live in infamy…”

    • Dec. 8- FDR asked for a declaration of war on Japan

      • Only one member voted against

    • Dec. 11- Germany & Italy declared war on the US


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