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C-2A GREYHOUND FACILITATOR CRM COURSE. VAW-120. OVERVIEW. INTRODUCTION. CRM HISTORY. CRM PROGRAM. SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW. SEVEN SKILLS EXPANDED. PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES. REVIEW. SUMMARY. 2. PRIVILEGED. For Official Use Only

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C 2a greyhound facilitator crm course
C-2A GREYHOUNDFACILITATOR CRM COURSE

VAW-120


Overview
OVERVIEW

INTRODUCTION

CRM HISTORY

CRM PROGRAM

SEVEN SKILLS OVERVIEW

SEVEN SKILLS EXPANDED

PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES

REVIEW

SUMMARY

2


Privileged
PRIVILEGED

  • For Official Use Only

    • This brief contains privileged, limited-use, limited-distribution information. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this brief or its supporting enclosures by military personnel is a criminal offense punishable under article 92, uniform code of military justice. unauthorized disclosure of the information in this report or its supporting enclosures by civilian personnel will subject them to disciplinary action under civilian personnel instruction 752.


Rules of engagement
Rules of Engagement

  • Your active participation

    • What experiences you have had

    • What potential incidents you have avoided

    • What importance you place on CRM

  • Application of CRM skills is …Your Responsibility

Learn from others’ mistakes, because you’re not going to live long enough to make all of them yourself.

—Roger Coleman, Lead CRM Developer, AAL


Why crm
Why CRM?

  • To IMPROVE MISSION EFFECTIVENESSof Naval Aviation communities

    • minimizing crew preventable errors

    • by enhancing crew coordination

    • through increased awareness of associated behavioral skills


Aviation is inherently dangerous
Aviation is Inherently Dangerous

There will always be something or

somebody out there trying to kill you...


Crm history
CRM History

  • In 1977, CRM was adopted by civil operators to improve safety.

  • Four skills were identified as critical:

    • Decision making

    • Command

    • Leadership

    • Communication


Crm history1
CRM History

  • In 1987, the NAVY researched CRM for adoption into its aviation programs.

  • The study noted similarities and some significant differences between civilian and military operations.


Crm history2
CRM History

Differences Among Military Personnel / Operations

  • Age

  • Experience

  • Military Rank

  • Mission Objectives/ Requirements

  • Crew Duties

  • Centralized Training


Crm history3
CRM History

  • In 1989, the Naval Air Warfare Center began R&D on a program to apply CRM to tactical operations.

  • Research identified seven behavioral skills most common in Naval Aviation.

  • Decision Making

  • Assertiveness

  • Mission Analysis

  • Communication

  • Leadership

  • Adaptability/Flexibility

  • Situational Awareness


Crm history4
CRM History

  • In 1991, the Naval Safety Center found human error was significant in 50% of all Class “A” mishaps.

  • In 1993, “Interim” Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) was implemented.

  • In 1995, OPNAVINST 1542.7A established “Integrated” ACT milestone.


Crm history5
CRM History

  • In 1998, OPNAVINST 1542.7B established Aircrew Coordination Training (ACT) academic requirements/ flight evaluation.

  • In 2001, OPNAVINST 1542.7C changed the ACT program’s name to Crew Resource Management (CRM).


Mishap history
Mishap History

“Human beings by their very nature make mistakes; therefore, it’s unreasonable to expect error-free human performance”

—Shappell & Wiegmann, 1997


Human error background
Human Error Background

  • For the past three decades commercial aviation, the federal government, and more recently the military have expended substantial resources in determining the cause of mishaps.

  • Information recovered from cockpit voice recorders, SIRs, HAZREPS, and civilian mishap reports indicate the number one cause is

  • Human Error


Crm history6
CRM History

CRM is:

  • Mission Specific

  • Based on Knowledge, Behaviors and Skills

  • Integrated into Training

  • Research Supported

  • Developed by Aircrews for Aircrews

  • Incorporates Existing Knowledge Base

  • Conforms to Instructional Strategies


Crm future in navy usmc
CRM Future in Navy/ USMC

  • Continued integration of CRM concepts into procedures and NATOPS

  • Specific CRM simulator training

  • Computer Aided Debriefing Systems

  • More focus on individual error prevention/mitigation

  • Alignment with ICAO standards Data collection and trend analysis

  • Automation

  • CRM application to other fields


Crm history7
CRM History

Summary

  • 1977—CivilianOperators adopt CRM

  • 1993–1995—NavalAviation adopts “Interim” ACT/CRM

  • FY-05-09—Human Error accounts for 85% of Naval AviationClass A Mishaps

  • CRM Program to beT/M-specific and based 7 Skills



Crm program
CRM Program

  • Purpose of CRM

  • Chain of Command

  • Unit-Level Responsibilities

  • CRM Training Requirements


Purpose of crm
Purpose of CRM

  • To IMPROVE MISSION EFFECTIVENESSof Naval Aviation communities

    • by enhancing crew coordination

    • through increased awareness of associated behavioral skills


Purpose of cnafinst 1542 7 series
Purpose ofCNAFINST 1542.7 Series

  • To establish policies, responsibilities and procedures for administration of the Crew Resource Management (CRM) program

    • Establishes CRM content

    • Defines conduct/type of training

    • Delineates documentation requirements

    • Assigns CRM responsibilities


Chain of command
Chain of Command

OPNAV N88

CNAF TRAINING POLICY

NASC Pensacola IMM

Controlling Custodians

Curriculum Model Manager (CO)

CRM Instructors

Program Manager

CRM Facilitators


Curriculum model manager cmm
Curriculum Model Manager (CMM)

  • CO of a model manager squadron (VAW-120)

  • CRM training program for T/M/S

  • Correct number of CRM-I and CRM-F

  • Coordinate with T/M NATOPS Model Manager

  • Sets focus for the community


Crm program manager pm
CRM Program Manager (PM)

  • A CRM-I designated by the CMM

    • Currently: LT HAWKE

  • T/M/S SME and fleet POC

  • Develop aircraft-specific integrated CRM programs

  • Ensure curriculum current and relevant

  • Provide CRM materials to the IMMs


  • Crm instructor crm i
    CRM Instructor (CRM-I)

    • Train new CRM facilitators

    • Conduct annual training and check rides

    • Assist PM in distribution and standardization of CRM materials


    Crm facilitator crm f
    CRM Facilitator (CRM-F)

    • Conduct and document annual CRM training

    • Submit changes (NATOPS, 1542)

    • Feedback to Program Manager

    • Check rides

      • All FRS Pilot and Aircrew Instructors are made Facilitators as part of the IUT Syllabus/Check In.


    Instructor vs facilitator
    Instructor vs. Facilitator

    • NATOPS Qualified O-3/E-5 or above

    • Graduate of both the NASC IMM CRM Instructor’s Course AND the Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator Course

    • Designated in writing by the Type/Model Curriculum Model Manager

    • Qualified to train CRM Facilitators

    • Curriculum Model Manager establishes minimum experience level requirements

    • Graduate of Curriculum Program Manager’s CRM Facilitator Course (T/M specific)

    • Designated in writing by the unit CO

    • Qualified to conduct CRM initial and refresher training


    Unit level responsibilities
    Unit-Level Responsibilities

    • Facilitate integrated CRM training program

    • Conduct annual CRM training IAWOPNAVINST 3710.7/ CNAF 1542.7

    • Provide feedback to the CRM Model Manager (VAW-120)


    Crm ground training

    INITIAL

    Shall occur during undergraduate aviation training and during all fleet replacement/ initial training leading to T/M aircrew designation

    REFRESHER

    Shall occur annually while in a flight billet

    CRM Ground Training

    CRM training shall be conducted bya designated instructor or facilitator

    Specific CRM qualification is required for operation of each aircraft T/M/S.


    Crm ground training1
    CRM Ground Training

    Annual Ground Training Requirements

    COMNAVAIRFORINST 1542.7A, PARA. 7-D

    • CRM Principles and Seven Critical CRM Skills

    • Topics Of Concern / Recent Trends

    • T/M-Specific Case Study/ Scenario

    • Open and Frank Discussion on Current State of CRM

    • Must use PowerPoint developed by CRM Model Manager.


    Annual crm flight evaluation
    Annual CRM Flight Evaluation

    • Annual Requirement

      • May be accomplished within 60 days of expiration without rebasing.

      • Typically done with NATOPS check.

    • CRM-I or CRM-F Required

    • May Be Completed In Simulator


    Training documentation
    Training Documentation

    • Must be entered into NATOPS Jacket

      • Section II, Part C

      • Utilize CNAFINST 1542.7 encl. 3

    • NATOPS Check Paperwork Shall State “Conducted CRM flight evaluation per CNAFINST 1542.7A.”


    Training documentation1
    Training Documentation

    Extensions

    • COs may grant extensions for deployed aircrew whose CRM training will expire.

    • Extensions shall not exceed 90 days after return from deployment.

    • Document all extensions in NATOPS jacket.

    • REBASE YOUR DETS! DON’T PLAN ON EXTENSIONS.


    Training documentation2
    Training Documentation

    “Personnel who fail to meet CRM requirements without a written extension shall not serve as aircrew members.”


    Crm program1
    CRM Program

    Summary

    • Purpose of CRM Program

    • Chain of Command

    • Unit-Level Responsibilities

    • Training Policies

    • Qualifications/Evaluation

    • Extensions



    Seven critical crm skills
    Seven Critical CRM Skills

    CRM skills are necessary because errors repeat even with new technology!


    Seven critical crm skills1
    Seven Critical CRM Skills

    DAM CLAS

    Decision Making

    Assertiveness

    Mission Analysis

    Communication

    Leadership

    Adaptability/Flexibility

    Situational Awareness


    Decision making
    Decision Making

    Definition:

    The ability to choose a course of action using logical and sound judgment basedon available information.

    • How do you defineDecision Making?

    39


    Decision making1
    Decision Making

    • Question:How do hazardous attitudes affectdecision making?

    • Negative Effect:

      • Peer pressure

      • Mind set

      • “Get home-itis”

      • Getting behind theaircraft


    Decision making in the c 2a
    Decision Makingin the C-2A

    • C-2 Capabilities vs. Air Wing Desires

    • Detailed Preflight Planning vs. “Canned Route” Attitude

    • Any member of a Detachment can end up being put in a position where they need to speak for the OIC


    Assertiveness
    Assertiveness

    Definition:

    The willingness/readiness to actively participate, state and maintain a position until convinced by the facts that other options are better.

    • What isAssertiveness?

    42


    Assertiveness1
    Assertiveness

    • Question:When is it appropriate to be assertive?

    • Speak up when you encounter:

      • Unclear mission objectives

      • Overly aggressive or passive crewmembers

      • Conflict in the aircraft

      • Issues not addressed in the debrief

    Whenever your comfort level is exceeded…

    SPEAK UP !


    Assertiveness in the c 2a
    Assertivenessin the C-2A

    • 3P vs Aircraft Commander

    • Aircraft Commander vs Aircraft Commander

    • 2P/2P Flights

    • C-2 vs Air Wing/Air Boss/Flight Deck Handler


    Mission analysis
    Mission Analysis

    Definition:

    The ability to develop short-term, long-term and contingency plans and to coordinate, allocate and monitor crew and aircraft resources.

    • How do you defineMission Analysis?

    45


    Mission analysis1
    Mission Analysis

    • Question:What are three components of Mission Analysis?

    • Planning and preparation

    • Monitoring inflight mission progress

    • Postflight debriefing


    Mission analysis in the c 2a
    Mission Analysisin the C-2A

    • How good is your Debrief?


    Communication
    Communication

    Definition:

    The ability to clearly and accurately send and acknowledge information, instructions, or commands, and provide useful feedback.

    • What isCommunication?

    48


    Communication1
    Communication

    • Question:When can experience in flight be a barrier to communication?

    • Less experience—Less likely to speak up

    • More experience—May resist change and the need to adapt


    Communication in the c 2a
    Communicationin the C-2A

    • Detachment personality dynamics

    • Enlisted Aircrew/Pilot relationship

    • Ship to Shore Communication


    Leadership
    Leadership

    Definition:

    The ability to direct/coordinate the activities of other crewmembers or wingmen, and to encourage them to work together as a team.

    • How do you defineLeadership?

    51


    Leadership1
    Leadership

    • Question:What are some leadership traits that inspire peak performance in a crew?

    • Decisive

    • Competent

    • Keeping crew informed

    • Open to suggestions

    • Leading by example

    • Trust


    Leadership in the c 2a
    Leadershipin the C-2A

    • C-2 Pilots have to grow up fast

    • Any member of a Det can be cornered by CAG, Flag, etc

    • Leadership challenges associated with being on perpetual “Port Call”


    Adaptability flexibility
    Adaptability/ Flexibility

    Definition:

    The ability to alter a course of action based on new information, maintain constructive behavior under pressure and adapt to internal/external environmental changes.

    • What is Adaptability/Flexibility?

    54


    Adaptability flexibility1
    Adaptability/ Flexibility

    • Question:What are some situations that require Adaptability/ Flexibility?

    • Routine becomes an emergency

    • Inclement weather

    • CV environment

    • Changing primary mission


    Adaptability flexibility in the c 2a
    Adaptability/ Flexibilityin the C-2A

    • This is the C-2 skill

    • Legs added to flight

    • Destinations changed

    • CV arrival intentions can vary/change last minute

    • At mercy of DV sched

    • Last minute PAX/Cargo

    • Hazardous Cargo


    Situational awareness

    ?

    Situational Awareness

    Definition:

    The degree of accuracy by which one’s perception of the current environment mirrors reality.

    • What isSituationalAwareness?

    57


    Situational awareness1
    Situational Awareness

    • Question:If good situational awareness means looking around at what’s happening, what else must be recognized?

    • What led to the present situation?

    • What will happen in the next 30 seconds,10 minutes, etc?

    • Crosschecking and communication


    Situational awareness in the c 2a
    Situational Awarenessin the C-2A

    • 80% of Aircraft is behind you

    • Who is in your plane?

    • What is in your plane?

    • What country clearances do you have?

    • What does having PAX add to divert considerations?



    Adults #1 Fear…

    • Several polls have been conducted during the last decade, asking Americans what they fear the most.

    • The number 1 response, which is above even death--by as much as a 2-1 margin is…..

    PUBLIC SPEAKING


    Stage fright
    Stage Fright

    “The human brain is a wonderful thing. It operates from the moment you’re born until the first time you get up to make a speech.”

    --Howard Goshorn


    Principles of communication
    Principles of Communication

    • Desire to communicate


    Principles of communication1
    Principles of Communication

    • Desire to communicate

    • Believe in what you say


    Principles of communication2
    Principles of Communication

    • Desire to communicate

    • Believe in what you say

    • Know your subject


    Principles of communication3
    Principles of Communication

    • Desire to communicate

    • Believe in what you say

    • Know your subject

    • Know your audience


    Principles of communication4
    Principles of Communication

    • Desire to communicate

    • Believe in what you say

    • Know your subject

    • Know your audience

    • Deliver with enthusiasm


    Principles of communication5
    Principles of Communication

    • Desire to communicate

    • Believe in what you say

    • Know your subject

    • Know your audience

    • Deliver with enthusiasm

    • Rehearse, Rehearse, Rehearse


    Instructing

    vs.

    Teaching


    normally involves a great deal of participation by the instructor and very little by the audience

    INSTRUCTING

    1 v Many

    TEACHING

    1 v 1

    Interactive Process…Relationships…Thinking


    3 basic questions
    3 Basic Questions

    • Audience - Who am I teaching?

    • Material - What do they need to know?

    • Instructor - How am I going to present it?


    Audience analysis
    Audience Analysis

    • Motivation

    • Interest

    • Familiarity

    • Capability


    Know the material
    Know the Material

    • Read Everything

    • Talk to experts – SME’s

    • Write Things Down


    Brief Fatigue

    Remember...

    "The mind can only absorb

    what the butt can endure.“


    Presentation techniques
    Presentation Techniques

    • Complete Memorization

    • Partial Memorization

    • Approximate Memorization


    Notes
    Notes

    • Note Cards (3X5)

    • Sheets of Paper

      • Power Point Notes Pages

      • Fold-over


    Notes1
    Notes

    • Note Cards (3X5)

    • Sheets of Paper

      • Power Point Notes Pages

      • Fold-over

    MAKE IT WORK FOR YOU, NOT AGAINST YOU…

    THERE IS NO SUBSTITUTE FOR PREPARATION AND REHEARSAL


    Communicating the message
    Communicating the Message

    • 7% Verbal Content

    • 55% Visual Stimulation

    • 38% Tone of Voice


    Maximizing verbal impact

    Create a Mental Image

    Maximizing Verbal Impact

    • Relate Relevant Ideas

    • Be Imaginative

    • In your own words

    • Simplify Complex Concepts

    • and Ideas


    Delivering presentations

    Delivering Presentations


    Public speaking is a combination of presentation content material and showmanship
    Public Speaking is a Combination of…- Presentation Content (Material)and - Showmanship

    Delivering Presentations


    Delivering presentations1
    Delivering Presentations

    ENTERTAINING IS EFFECTIVE

    but….

    IT IS NOT REQUIRED


    NEVER APOLOGIZE !

    Your audience will be

    very distracted and

    few people can rejuvenate an

    atmosphere littered with

    self-proclaimed weakness


    APPEARANCE

    AND BODY

    LANGUAGE


    Body language
    Body Language

    • The Hands


    Body language1
    Body Language

    • The Hands

    • Props


    Body language2
    Body Language

    • The Hands

    • Props

    • Movement / Eye Contact


    Body language3
    Body Language

    • The Hands

    • Props

    • Movement /

      Eye Contact

    All amount to the audience’s initial assessment of you, and their continued re-assessment of what you're saying


    Use of the voice
    Use of the Voice

    • Quality

    • Intelligibility

    • Variety


    Dealing with a distracting audience
    Dealing With A Distracting Audience

    • The Clown

    • The Know-it-all

    • The Distracted


    Who are these people
    Who are these People?

    …People who show the following signs.

    • No Eye Contact

    • Cleaning Fingernails

    • Looking Out the Window

    • Reading or Talking

    • Sleeping / Drooling


    Close combat
    Close Combat

    # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss


    Close combat1
    Close Combat

    # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss

    # 2 - Subtle Confrontation


    Close combat2
    Close Combat

    # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss

    # 2 - Subtle Confrontation

    Get Physically Close


    Close combat3
    Close Combat

    # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss

    # 2 - Subtle Confrontation

    Get Physically Close

    Make Eye Contact


    Close combat4
    Close Combat

    # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss

    # 2 - Subtle Confrontation

    Get Physically Close

    Make Eye Contact

    SAY "STOP!"


    Close combat5
    Close Combat

    # 1 - Ignore or Dismiss

    # 2 - Subtle Confrontation

    Get Physically Close

    Make Eye Contact

    SAY "STOP!"

    Redirect your attention towards the audience



    Leave time for questions
    Leave time for Questions to tell the difference"

    • Remain alert

    • Repeat the question

    • Answer it to the audience

    • Finish on a good note


    Tips for the terminally nervous
    Tips for the Terminally Nervous to tell the difference"


    Familiarity
    Familiarity to tell the difference"

    • Spaces

    • Equipment

    • REHEARSE!


    Have your opening nailed
    Have Your Opening Nailed to tell the difference"

    • "Being able to start is more than half the whole."

      • --Aristotle


    Reduced to it's most to tell the difference"

    Basic form...

    You’re only talking...

    You do that everyday!!!


    Annual training brief
    Annual Training Brief to tell the difference"

    • Review Annual Training Brief

    • Brief location?


    Questions??? to tell the difference"


    The end

    THE END to tell the difference"

    Remember…

    “We train like we fight, and we fight like we train”


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