SOURCES OF RADIATION
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SOURCES OF RADIATION. TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC. Terminal Objective.

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SOURCES OF RADIATION

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Sources of radiation

SOURCES OF RADIATION

TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC


Sources of radiation

Terminal Objective

Upon completion of this course, the participants will demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the information presented during RADCON Technician training by obtaining a score of greater than or equal to 80% on a written examination. The information presented in this lesson plan may be part of an overall exam or be the only information for which the student is examined.


Sources of radiation

Enabling Objectives

Standards and conditions apply to all enabling objectives. They include: under the examination ground rules, without the use of training materials or outside assistance, and utilizing information presented in this lesson plan. Upon completion of this each participant will be able to:

  • Identify the types of ionizing radiation providing exposure to the general public – natural background sources and man-made radiation sources.

  • Define natural background sources and each of its types.

  • Provide an explanation of cosmic radiation sources.


Sources of radiation

Enabling Objective cont.

  • Provide an explanation of terrestrial radiation sources.

  • Identify the source of radon and its daughter products.

  • Provide an explanation of internal radiation sources.

  • Define the types of man-made radiation sources and provide examples of each.


Sources of radiation

Categories of types of Sources of Ionizing Radiation to the General Public

Natural Background Radiation Sources

Man-made Radiation Sources


Sources of radiation

TypesofNaturalBackgroundRadiationSources

CosmicRadiation

TerrestrialRadiation

InternalRadiation


Sources of radiation

Origin of CosmicRadiation

Protons - p

Cosmic Rays

Alpha particles - a


Sources of radiation

Origin of Cosmic Radiation

COSMIC RAY SHOWER

Interaction of “Primary” cosmic ray with atmospheric nuclei.

Results in dissipation of “Primary” cosmic ray and nuclei.

Creates “Secondary” cosmic rays.

Interactions of “Secondary” cosmic rays creates…

COSMIC RAY SHOWER.

“Secondary” cosmic rays are the source of Cosmic Radiation exposure to the general public.


Sources of radiation

Origin of Cosmic Radiation

Exposure Variance with Altitude

Altitude

The greater your altitude, the higher your exposure


Sources of radiation

Cosmic Radiation Exposure

Calculated average radiation dose equivalent at ground level from Cosmic Rays

26 mrem/yr or 0.26 mSv/yr

Calculated average radiation dose equivalent for Air Travel

1 mrem/yr or 0.01 mSv/yr

Other sources add an additional

1 mrem/yr or 0.01 mSv/yr


Sources of radiation

Terrestrial Radiation Sources

Primordial Radionuclides

Naturally occurring radionuclides

Created when Earth was formed

Long-lived half-lives

Terrestrial Radiation Sources– external

Inhaled Radiation Sources– internal (radon)


Sources of radiation

TerrestrialRadiation Sources

Primordial Radionuclides

Non Series

and

Series


Sources of radiation

TerrestrialRadiation Sources

Non-Series Primordial Radionuclides

These decay directly to a stable nuclide

*K-40*

V-50, Rb-87, Cd-113, In-115, Te-123, La-138, Ce-142, Nd-144, Sm-147, Gd-152, Hf-174, Lu-176, Re-187, Pt-190, Pt-192, Bi-209


Sources of radiation

TerrestrialRadiation Sources

Uranium Series

U-238


Sources of radiation

Terrestrial Radiation Sources

Primordial Radionuclide Concentration

Dose Dependency


Sources of radiation

TerrestrialRadiation Sources

PrimordialRadionuclideConcentration

High Background Areas

Nile Delta Egypt – 350 mrem/year

Paris, France – 350 mrem/year

Kerala, India – 400 mrem/year

McAlpe, Brazil – 2448 mrem/year

*Pocos de Caldas, Brazil*

*7000 mrem/year*


Sources of radiation

Terrestrial Radiation Sources

Total Radiation Dose Equivalent

28 mrem/year or

0.28 mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Inhaled Radiation Sources -Radon


Sources of radiation

Inhaled Radiation Sources -Radon

Gas with progeny of particulates

From ground to air

Poor ventilation greater hazard

Highest exposure to general public


Sources of radiation

Inhaled Radiation Sources - Radon

  • Dose depend on

  • Geographical area

  • Type structure

  • Type ventilation

Ramas, Iran

Individual exposure

to 26000 mrem/year

Radiation Dose Equivalent

Inhaled Radon Radiation Sources

200 mrem/year


Sources of radiation

Internal Radiation Sources

Radionuclides in Body

Inhalation

Ingestion

Absorption

Present at birth

238U

210Pb

14C

232Th

230Th

3H

87Rb

22Na

228Ra

226Ra

232Th

40K


Sources of radiation

Internal Radiation Sources

Food

Possible pathway for all

K40 primary with food

Ra226 – brazil nuts and salmon

Pb210 - muscle meats and seafood

Ra228 through food

Drinking water

Ra226 & U238 ingested from drink

Ra226 level : water intake & water levels

Air

Pb210

atmospheric aerosols & cigarette smoke


Sources of radiation

Internal Radiation Sources

Dose

dietary habits

sex

age

smoking

body mass

Radiation Dose Equivalent

Internal Radiation Sources

40 mrem/year or 0.4 mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Radiation Dose Equivalent Total

Natural Background Radiation Sources

296 mrem/year or

2.96mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Man-made RadiationSources

Medical Procedures

x-rays

nuclear medicine

Consumer Products

Radioactive Material

from

Fallout

Nuclear Power Production


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

X-ray

  • Provides most exposure

  • Minimum 6 mrem/x-ray

  • Average 200 mrem

Radiography x-rays

CT

Mammography

Average Radiation Dose Equivalent – X-rays

39 mrem/hr or 0.39 mSv


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Nuclear medicine

  • Radiopharmaceuticals used

  • Diagnostic and therapeutic

  • Thallium heart stress tests

  • Tumor irradiation therapies

  • I131, Tc99m, Co60, Ir192, Cs137

Average Radiation Dose Equivalent

Nuclear medicine

14 mrem/year or 0.14 mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Medical Radiation Sources

Total

Average Radiation Dose Equivalent

Medical Radiation Sources

X-ray & Nuclear Medicine

53 mrem/year

or 0.53 mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Consumer Product Radiation Sources

ElectronicProducts

Products of Radioactive Material


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Consumer Product Radiation Sources

Electronic Products

Produce x-rays

Examples

Televisions

Video display terminals

Airport luggage inspection systems

Personnel scanning systems

Designed to eliminate general public exposure

Radiation Dose EquivalentElectronic Products

<1 mrem/yr


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Consumer Products with Radioactive Material

Radioluminous products – Ra-226, H-3, Pm-147

Spark gap indicators & electron tubes-

Co-60, H-3, Kr-85, Cs-137, Ni-63, Pb-210

Cardiac pacemakers – Pu-238

Smoke detectors – Ra-226

Ra226 watches – 3 mrem/yr Tritium watches – 0.6 mrem/yr

Lighting rods – Ra-226, Am-241

Check sources-

Co-60

Ra-226

Sr-90

Kr-85

Pacemaker – 100 mrem/yr Smoke detectors – 1 mrem/yr


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Consumer Product Radiation Sources

Products of Radioactive Material

Natural Radioactive Material Products

  • Thoriated tungsten welding rods

  • Camera lenses

  • Opthalmic glass – 400 mrem

  • Combustible coal – 4 mrem

  • Combustible oil

  • Combustible natural gas – 6-9 mrem

  • Glass & ceramics – 2400 mrem

  • Highway and road construction material

  • Fertilizer Products

  • Gas mantles – 0.1-0.4 mrem

  • Dental Products – 60000 mrem


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Consumer Product RadiationSources

Average Radiation Dose Equivalent

11 mrem/year or 0.11 mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources

Radioactive Material from Fallout

Atmospheric testing to 1960’s

Underground testing after 1960’s

Example Isotopes released

C-14, Na-22, Sr-89, Pl-239, Ar-39, Cs-137, Sr-90, I-131

Isotopes decayed or bottom of ocean

Exposure depleted over time

Average Radiation Dose Equivalent

<1 mrem/year or <0.01 mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources Nuclear Power Production

  • Mining

  • Milling and Refinement

  • Enrichment

  • Fabrication of pellets, fuel rods and bundles for use in the reactor

  • Power generation

  • Storage

  • Transportation

  • Burial


Sources of radiation

Man-made Radiation Sources Nuclear Power Production

Power Plant Operation

Exposure

Direct – radiation produced in process

Effluents – gas & liquid released

Regulations for exposure and effluent release control

Maximum Exposure - <1 mrem/year


Sources of radiation

Radiation Dose Equivalent Total

Man-made Radiation Sources

64 mrem/year

0.64 mSv/year


Sources of radiation

Exposure from Sources of Radiation General Public

Natural Background Radiation

296 mrem/yr 2.96 mSv/yr

Man-Made Radiation –

64 mrem/yr 0.64 mSv/yr

Medical processes –

53 mrem/yr 0.53 mSv/yr

X-ray- 39 mrem/yr

Nuclear medicine – 14 mrem/yr

Consumer products

11 mrem/yr or 0.11 mSv/yr

Fallout

<1 mrem/yr or <0.01 mSv/yr

Nuclear power production

<1 mrem/yr or <0.01 mSv/yr

Cosmic Radiation –

28 mrem/yr 0.28 mSv/yr

Terrestrial Radiation

28 mrem or 0.28 mSv/yr

Inhaled (radon)

200 mrem/yr or 2.0 mSv/yr

Internal Radiation

40 mrem/yr or 0.4 mSv/yr

Average Total 360 mrem/yr 3.6 mSv/yr


Sources of radiation

Controlling General Public Dose

  • Non-controllable

  • Natural terrestrial

  • Cosmic radiation

  • Natural inside body

  • Medical to patient

  • Fallout

  • Regional from accidents

  • Controllable

  • Man-made exposure in workplace

  • Operations releasing man-made/naturally occurring

  • Radiation producing machines

  • Localized area of environmental releases

  • Technologically enhanced

  • Medical exposures to non-patients

  • Indoor Radon

  • Ways to limit exposure

  • Test the home for Radon and reduce levels if necessary

  • Evaluate medical uses and weigh the benefits versus the risk

  • Participate in public decisions-making


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