Teori Pembelajaran
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Teori Pembelajaran

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Teori Pembelajaran. Merujuk kepada prinsip-prinsip dan hukem-hukum pembelajaran yang dihasilkan daripada kajian-kajian ahli-ahli psikologi pembelajaran.Pendidik dapat memahami tentang cara pelajarnya belajar.Pendidik dapat menghubung kait prinsip dan hukum pembelajaran dengan kaedah dan teknik yan
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Teori Pembelajaran

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1. Teori Pembelajaran Dr Bushro Binti Ali

2. Teori Pembelajaran Merujuk kepada prinsip-prinsip dan hukem-hukum pembelajaran yang dihasilkan daripada kajian-kajian ahli-ahli psikologi pembelajaran. Pendidik dapat memahami tentang cara pelajarnya belajar. Pendidik dapat menghubung kait prinsip dan hukum pembelajaran dengan kaedah dan teknik yang akan digunakan.

3. Teori Pembelajaran Multimedia allows the development of different types of presentations that suit to different types of intelligences. Use of MI in the multimedia environment caters to the premise that different type of intelligences requires different instructional approaches as these applications have the ability to be individualized to suit the learner. Although the theory was not originally designed for use in classroom application, it has been widely embraced by educators and enjoyed numerous adaptations in a variety of educational settings [7, 8] but its application to courseware design is still undergoing research. Presentation of the contents is very important in designing an educational courseware in order to promote effective learning. The way content is structured, organized and presented need to be designed carefully. The success of the courseware depends on the activities presented in the courseware. For this study, I chose only three types of intelligences (4 actually + musical which is included inside the three) and. Activities that can be included in the design of this courseware content that meet and comply with learner centred instructions. OR The these are the strategies that I used for my courseware?READ Multimedia allows the development of different types of presentations that suit to different types of intelligences. Use of MI in the multimedia environment caters to the premise that different type of intelligences requires different instructional approaches as these applications have the ability to be individualized to suit the learner. Although the theory was not originally designed for use in classroom application, it has been widely embraced by educators and enjoyed numerous adaptations in a variety of educational settings [7, 8] but its application to courseware design is still undergoing research. Presentation of the contents is very important in designing an educational courseware in order to promote effective learning. The way content is structured, organized and presented need to be designed carefully. The success of the courseware depends on the activities presented in the courseware. For this study, I chose only three types of intelligences (4 actually + musical which is included inside the three) and. Activities that can be included in the design of this courseware content that meet and comply with learner centred instructions. OR The these are the strategies that I used for my courseware?READ

4. Teori Pembelajaran Sosial Tiga unsur utama Individu (Motivasi intrinsik) Persekitaran (Rangsangan luaran) Tingkah Laku (Tindak balas)

5. Teori Pembelajaran Sosial Teori Pemodelan : Bandura Tingkah laku kanak-kanak adalah dipelajari melalui peniruan atau pemodelan. Orang diperhatikan sebagai model. Proses pembelajaran melalui pemerhatian tingkah laku model sebagai permodelan (modelling).

6. Teori Pembelajaran Sosial Teori Pemodelan : Bandura 4 unsur utama Perhatian (attentian) Mengingat (retention) Reproduksi (reproduction) Peneguhan/Motivasi (reinforcement/motivation)

7. Proses Pembelajaran Pemerhatian/Pemodelan Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies? Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies?

8. Proses Pembelajaran Pemerhatian/Pemodelan Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies? Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies?

9. Proses Pembelajaran Pemerhatian/Pemodelan Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies? Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies?

10. Proses Pembelajaran Pemerhatian/Pemodelan Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies? Ok ..so I have the strategies ..how do I design the courseware? ..I utilize the instructional system design (ISD)..I am sure most of you are familiar with this ISD..but I will give some explanation for the benefit of those who are not ..(Read) There three phases in the design and development of the courseware. That is Phase1 ? Analysis; Phase 2 ? Design and development and Phase 3 ? Implementation and evaluation. During Analysis phase, things that I looked through are.. READ problem identification, learner analysis etc.. During Design and Development phase: we established product criteria, flowchart, storyboard, design etc.. Lastly during Implementation and evaluation ; formative evaluation and also usability studies?

11. Jenis-Jenis Peniruan RESEARCH OUTPUT. During the analysis phase , the output that I?ve established are ?. READ?. Implementation and evaluation? The courseware will be tryout through quasi experiment and usability studies to seek the effectiveness of the courseware. RESEARCH OUTPUT. During the analysis phase , the output that I?ve established are ?. READ?. Implementation and evaluation? The courseware will be tryout through quasi experiment and usability studies to seek the effectiveness of the courseware.

12. Teori Pembelajaran Sosial Jenis model dalam Tingkah laku kanak-kanak adalah dipelajari melalui peniruan atau pemodelan. Orang diperhatikan sebagai model. Proses pembelajaran melalui pemerhatian tingkah laku model sebagai permodelan (modelling).

14. Prinsip Pelaksanaan Teori Pembelajaran Sosial Menentu dan menggunakan model yang sesuai dgn perbezaan individu dalam pembelajaran sosial. . Memastikan proses pemerhatian dilakukan mengikut prosedur Memupuk keupayaan mengawal dan memanipulasi diri dengan menggunakan pemirian refeksi diri dan maklum balas drp model (jurulatih) iv. Memupuk kecekapan meniru dan reproduksi dengan latihan secara sistematik drp mudah kpd kompleks dan demontrasi berulang-ulang. v. Memupuk konsep kendiri positif supaya pelajar memperoleh keyakinan terhadap tingkahlaku yang ditirunya. ? dengan memberi peneguhan positif.

15. Ciri-ciri Teori Pemodelan Bandura Unsur pembelajaran utama ialah pemerhatian dan peniruan. Tingkah laku model boleh dipelajari melalui bahasa, misalan dan teladan. Pelajar meniru sesuatu kemahiran daripada kecekapan demontrasi guru sebagai model. Pelajar memperoleh kemahiran jika memperoleh kepuasan dan peneguhan yang berpatutan. Proses pembelajaran meliputi pemerhatian, peringatan, peniruan dgn tingkah laku atau gerak balas yg sesuai, diakhiri dengan peneguhan positif.

16. Implikasi Teori Pemodelan Bandura Penyampaian guru hendaklah cekap dan menarik agar dapat menjadi role model kpd pelajar. Demontrasi guru hendaklah jelas serta menarik agar pelajar dpt meniru dengan cepat. Hasilan guru dpt kraftangan, lukisan atau ABM hendaklah bermutu tinggi. Guru boleh menggunakan rakan sebaya yang cemerlang sbg model. Guru boleh mengajar nilai murni dan watak bersejarah dengan teknik main peranan dan simulasi.

17. Mazhab Humanis Fitrah manusia ? mulia dan baik Individu akan tumbuh secara semula jadi jika persekitarannya sesuai. Oleh itu ? guru perlu mengikut keperluan pelajar, membantu mereka mempelajari ilmu pengetahuan yang bermakna. Sekolah harus mengutamakan pendidikan afektif berasaskan ilmu pengetahuan. Pembelajaran manusia bergantung kpd emosi dan perasaannya.

18. Mazhab Humanis Setiap individu adalah berbeza, dan mempunyai cara belajar yang berbeza. Strategi p&p hendaklah mengikut kehendak dan perkembangan emosi pelajar. Ahli mazhab : Carl Rogers dan Maslow. Setiap individu mempunyai potensi dan keinginan untuk mencapai kecermelangan kendiri. Guru hendaklah menjaga kendiri pelajar dan memberi bimbingan supaya potensi mereka dpt dikembangkan.

19. Ciri-ciri Khusus Mazhab Humanis Pengalaman dan psikologi manusia berlainan dgn haiwan. Kajian tema akur dengan kehirupan manusia yg bermakna. Kajian tingkah laku manusia merangkumi proses dalaman yang subjektif serta tingkah laku luaran. Kajian berdasarkan teori psikologi dan psikologi gunaan, Pertimbangan asas- perbezaan individu. Sumbangan mazhab ? kehidupan manusia yg bermakna dan sejahtera.

20. Ciri-ciri Teori Pembelajaran Rogers Pengalaman individu adalah fenomena-logikal yg dialami oleh individu sendiri. Setiap individu mempunyai kecenderungan dan hasrat sendiri untuk mencapai kesempurnaan kendiri. Setiap individu membentuk konsep kendiri yg unik melalui sistem nilai dan kepercayaan yg berbeza dgn org lain. Tingkah laku yg ditunjukkan adalah selaras dengan konsep kendiri dan keupayaannya. Kefahaman tingkah laku individu hanya diperoleh melalui proses komunikasi,

21. Prinsip Pendekatan Pendidikan Rogers Mengutamakan pendidikan berpusat pelajar. Mengutamakan prinsip pembelajaran berasaskan kebebasan (freedom to learn): Pemb merupakan sesuatu jenis naluri ingin tahu (curiosity) Pemb berlaku jika bahan pemb bermakna serta sama dgn obj pemb pelajar. Keberkesanan pemb dicapai dlm situasi pendidikan yang kurang terancam. Keberkesanan pem dicapai apabila pelajar mengambil initiatif sendiri dan melibatkan diri sepenuh dlm aktiviti p&p. Membimbing pelajar supaya menilai hasil pemb dirinya demi mempertingkatkan pemikiran reflektif dan kemahiran kreatifnya Aktiviti p&p hendaklah dkaitkan dgn hidup nyata demi memupuk kemahiran hidup pelajar. Pembelajaran paling berkesan = belajar bagaimana belajar (learning to learn).

22. Hiraki Keperluan Maslow

23. Teori Keperluan Maslow Pembelajaran berkesan bergantung kepada motif pelajaran sendiri. Motivasi intrinsik merupakan penggerak asas bagi manusia mencapai kejayaan. Keperluan = kehendak manusia untuk mensempurnakan keadaan kekurangan, gangguan dan ketidak seimbangan dalam diri

24. Konsep Asas Teori Keperluan Maslow Keperluan manusia : Keperluan fisiologi ? asas (makanan, minuman, oksigen, kepuasan deria, tidur, rehat ) Keperluan psikologi ? keperluan sekunder (lahir dari perhubungan dan interaksi antara orang dan persekitaran ? keselamatan, kasih sayang, sempurna kendiri dll.)

25. Teori Keperluan Maslow Motivasi Intrinsik ? kuasa dalaman yg berada dalam perkembangan fisiologikal dan psikologikal manusia. Kuasa dalaman ini mendorong manusia mengejar kecermelangan. Perkaitan antara motivasi dengan hiraki keperluan ? apabila individu mendapat kepuasan dlm sesuatu hiraki, keperluan kepada hiraki yg lebih tinggi berlaku secara semula jadi.

26. Teori Keperluan Maslow Ciri individu yang mencapai ke peringkat tinggi: Boleh memahami hakikat sebenar. Mempunyai pemikiran tersendiri. Boleh menerima diri, orang lain dan alam semula jadi. Boleh mengikut aliran masa tetapi tidak kehilangan identiti sendiri. Mempunyai falsafah hidup dan moral sendiri. Mempunyai minat meluas terhadap pelbagai aktiviti sosial

27. Teori Keperluan Maslow Ciri individu yang mencapai ke peringkat tinggi: Mempunyai kawan karib dan suka menolong orang Mengamalkan demokrasi dan mempunyai sifat berjenaka. Boleh menanggung konflik di antara perasaan kegembiraan dengan kepahitan.

28. Implikasi konsep keperluan dalam amalan Bilik Darjah Pastikan keperluan asas pelajar telah dipenuhi. Jadikan bilik darjah kondusif. Bersifat penyayang utk memenuhi keperluan kasih sayang. Memupuk nilai penghargaan kendiri serta memberi peneguhan yg sesuai. Merancang aktiviti p&p mengikut kebolehan pelajar. Memupuk nilai motivasi diri melalui bimbingan supaya pelajar memahami dan menerima diri serta terlibat aktif dalam aktiviti sosial.

29. Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Mazhab Humanis Mementingkan perkembangan potensi individu: Strategi dan kaedah yg sesuai: berpusatkan murid, kaedah individu, inkuiri penemuan, kerja praktik serta pengayaan dan pemulihan. Guru sbg fasilitator/pembimbing.


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