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Vancouver. Referencing Technique. Dr. Shama Mashhood Medical Educationist KMDC. Vancouver. Vancouver group: Established guidelines for format of manuscripts submitted to their journals Guidelines first developed by the NLM, published in 1979

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Dr shama mashhood medical educationist kmdc


Referencing Technique

Dr. Shama Mashhood

Medical Educationist



  • Vancouver group:

  • Established guidelines for format of manuscripts submitted to their journals

  • Guidelines first developed by the NLM, published in 1979

  • Group expanded to International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)

  • Included ethical principles related to publication in biomedical journals

  • Revised on a regular basis

Importance of referencing
Importance of referencing

  • Verification

  • Authentication

  • To protect oneself from charges of plagiarism.

Referencing in vancouver style
Referencing in Vancouver Style

  • used in medical and scientific journals.

  • Numeric citation system

  • requires only a number in the body of the paper,

  • while at the end of the work there should be a numbered list of the references used.

In text citing
In-text citing

  • A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text Preferable style is either in brackets or in superscript. [ ] , e.g.….. innovative learning1

  • If the source is referred to again, the same number is used.

  • e.g.… one author has put it "the darkest days were still ahead" [1]: which is well documented in the literature. [2-5] This proves that "the darkest days were still ahead". [1]

Multiple references
Multiple References

  • use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers that are inclusive.

  • Use commas (without spaces) to separate non-inclusive

  • e.g. 2,3,4,5,7,10 is abbreviated to

  • (2-5,7,10)

How to create a reference list
How to create a Reference List

  • Reference list should appear at the end of the assignment / report.

  • Entries are listed numerically and in the same order that they were cited in the text.


    1. Baker PN, editor. Obstetrics by ten teachers. 18th ed. London:Hodder Arnold; 2006.

    2. Delbridge ML, Harry JL, Toder R. A human candidate spermatogenesis gene, RBM1, is conserved and amplified on the marsupial Y chromosome. Nat Genet. 1997; 15: 131-136.


Personal Author:

Adam RD, Victor M. Principles of Neurology. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Editor(s) or Compiler(s):

Diener HC, Wilkinson M, editors. Drug-induced headache. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1988.

Organization as author:

Virginia Law Foundation. The Medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville: The Foundation, 1987.

Chapter in a book or part of a book to which a number of authors have contributed
Chapter in a book(or part of a book to which a number of authors have contributed)

  • Elements of the citation:

  • Author's (of the chapter) surname initials. Title of chapter. In: Editor's surname initials, editor. Title of the book. # ed. [if not 1st] Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of publication. p. #.[page numbers of chapter]


    Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York:McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Journal citations
Journal citations

  • Main Elements of a journal citation:


  • 1. Author's surname Initials. Title of article. Title of Journal. [abbreviated] Year of publication Month date; Volume number (issue number): page numbers


Volume with supplement

Leff J. Working with the families of schizophrenic patients. Br J Psychiatry 1994; 164 Suppl 23: 71-76.

Issue with supplement:

Hirschfeld RMA, Holzer CE. Depressive personality disorders: clinical implications. J Clin Psychiat 1994 Apr; 55 (4Suppl): 10-17.

Journal article in Electronic format:

Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 1995 Jan-Mar [cited 1996 Jun 5]; 1(1): [24 screens]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdcgov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm

Vancouver publication info internet sources
“Vancouver” Publication Info, Internet sources

  • Indicate type of source in square brackets after title (But this practice varies widely according to journal/instructor)

    • e.g., [monograph on the Internet] or [serial online]

  • Internet sources require a final sentence beginning Available from:

    e.g. Available from:

Editing check sheet for references list
Editing Check sheet for References List

  • Each entry complete?

  • Author/Title (s)/Date/Pub.

  • Each element in order?

  • Each entry using right form?

  • Patterns of Capitalizing/

  • (non-)Italicizing/ Standard Abbreviating/ Punctuating

  • List matchesin-text citations (numbers or superscripts)?

How to master vancouver style
How to Master “Vancouver Style”

  • Read journals that use “Vancouver Style,” and be conscious of writers’ choices

  • Practice using “Vancouver Style” for many different kinds of sources, papers

  • Ask

  • Follow instruction of leading journal in your field