Bipolar Disorder. The effects of nutrition on the process of demyelination By Elise Handley University of Colorado EPOB 4800. Symptoms of bipolar disorder. Roller Coaster of Mood Swings Definitive changes in energy or activity level Changes in thinking and perception Suicidal thoughts
The effects of nutrition on the process of demyelination
By Elise Handley
University of Colorado
BPDI is defined as at least 1 episode of manic or mixed disorder and at least one episode of major depressive disorder
BPDII is defined as at least 1 hypomanic disorder and one major depressive episodeBPDI vs. BPDII
When compared on seven measures, there were no significant differences between BPD patients and schizophrenic patients
They differed from control in intracranial volume, adjusted ventricular volume, frontal fluid percent, and temporal fluid percent
There was also a trend in decreased head circumference11Friedman et al. (1999)
Round Nucleus differences between BPD patients and schizophrenic patients
Electron dense heterochromatin
Granular ER in the cytoplasm
Free ribosomes, mitochondria etc.
Swelling of cytoplasm and organelles
Clumping of heterochromatin
Decreased nuclear size
All signs were consistent with programmed cell death in oligodendrocytes
Myelinated fibers had various changesNormal Brains vs. BPD Brains
It is believed that the elevation of glutamate levels at the lesion site caused subsequent activation of AMPA receptors
This resulted in the selective killing of oligodendrocytes
The elevation in glutamate may be due to a thinning in the astrocyte population.
Another possibility is that NO (which is a ROS) levels increased
NO is known to damage oligodendrocytesHow did demyelination occur?
At higher concentrations, morin and apigenin were cytotoxic and decreased cell viability, while quercetin increased cell viability.
Luteolin was the “most potent” flavonoid tested, but quercetin, fisetin, and apigenin did inhibit myelin phagocytosis at higher concentrationsDid flavonoids help?
The focus was on arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n-3), metabolites of linoleic (18:2 n-6), and linolenic acid (18:3 n-3), respectively.
EPA affected the expression of proteolipid proteins (PLP) by means of accelerating the developmental expression, while AA caused no significant changesPolyunsaturated Fatty Acids
There are Th2-mediated illnesses (such as asthma) that may involve inflammation
This means that use a switch to a Th2 pathway may aggravate these illnesses
There is decreased incidence of allergic disease in patients with MSThe Th-2 switch
If they experience this decreased incidence in allergic disease… then it may be immune mediated like MS
More research is needed in this field
Both vitamin A and D have been shown to suppress EAE, and vitamin D3 has been shown to enhance the Th2 cell development (Racke and Racke 2002).
Thus, these treatments may be effective in the fight against BPDThe results