Comparative Analysis of Food and Nutrients Demand in the Context of the Conditional Cash Transfer Pr...
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Comparative Analysis of Food and Nutrients Demand in the Context of the Conditional Cash Transfer Program Oportunidades in Mexico. Ana Elena Meza González Supervisor: Dr. Christi ne Wieck UCL – UBonn 08.07.2013. Content. Introduction Oportunidades Research questions

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Ana Elena Meza González Supervisor: Dr. Christi ne Wieck UCL – UBonn 08.07.2013

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Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

Comparative Analysis of Food and Nutrients Demand in the Context of the Conditional Cash Transfer Program Oportunidadesin Mexico

Ana Elena Meza González

Supervisor: Dr. Christine Wieck

UCL – UBonn

08.07.2013


Content

Content

  • Introduction

    • Oportunidades

    • Research questions

  • Conditional Cash Transfers

  • Analytical Framework

  • Methodology

  • Results

  • Conclusions

  • Recommendations


1 introduction

1. Introduction

Intro

Oportu-nidades

  • 18.2% of Mexican population suffers from food poverty (2008) ~ 3.4 million households ~ 19.5 million people

Hypothesis

Figure 1.1 Percentage of people suffering from food poverty. 1992 - 2008

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion

Source: taken from (CONEVAL, 2010)


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

1.aOportunidades

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Components of the Program (Irala Burgos, 2012)

  • Direct cash transfer to women to improve quantity, quality and diversity of food, and thus provide better nutrition.

  • Nutritional supplements: children 4 mo. – 2 years. Lactating and pregnant women.

  • In 2008 – Aid for a Better Living

    Conditions:

  • Grants to children under 18 who regularly attend school between 3rd grade and 3rd year of High school.

    • Girls grant > Boys grant in secondary school.

  • Regular visits to health centers.

  • Health and nutritional workshops targeted to women.

  • The cash transferred represents on average 25% of the total income received by rural families, and between 15 to 20% of urban families’ income

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

1.a Oportunidades

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Nutritional Impact :

  • Oportunidades has lead to a significant increase in children anthropometry.

  • One year after the implementation of the program: beneficiary children in rural areas (44%) were found to be anemic, compared to 55% of the children in the control group. In urban areas, there was no significant difference among anemia rates.

  • There were not found statistically differences in the serum concentration of ferritin or soluble ferritin receptor, nor in serum zinc and retinol concentration.

  • (Behrman & Hoddinott, 2005)(Leroy, Ruel, & Verhofstadt, 2009)

  • There has not been an improvement on the micronutrient status even after the delivery of food supplements.

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

1.b Research questions

Intro

Oportu-nidades

  • The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the Cash Transfer Program Oportunidades on nutrition of beneficiary households.

  • The objective is to analyze the food and nutrient demand of the recipients of the cash transfer program Oportunidades by estimating their food and nutrient elasticities with respect to income and price.

  • This study will try to answer the following research questions:

  • Has the Conditional Cash Transfer Program Oportunidadesachieved to improve food availability of the households recipients of the transfer compared to no beneficiaries?

  • Has the Conditional Cash Transfer Program Oportunidadeslead to diverse and nutrient-rich food consumption?

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

2. Conditional Cash Transfer

Education in Health & Nutrition to Women

Cash to Women

Fortified Products

Program

Health Visits (Condition)

Education (Condition)

Intro

Underlying Causes

HH Income & Women’s Income Control

Use of Health and Nutrition Services

School Enrolment & Attendance

Oportu-nidades

Women’s Knowledge & Awareness

Women’s Time

  • Figure 2.1 Mechanisms by which conditional cash transfer programs may affect nutritional status

Health Supply

Education supply

Hypothesis

HH Food Security-Diet Quality /Quantity

Feeding & Care Practices

Educated Girls

CCT

Intermediate Causes

Food / Nutrient Intake

Health

Long Term

Framework

Household Members’ Nutrition

Method

Results

Conclusion

Source: adapted from (Leroy, Ruel, & Verhofstadt, 2009)


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

2. Conditional Cash Transfer

Intro

Education in Health & Nutrition to Women

Cash to Women

Fortified Products

Program

Oportu-nidades

Health Visits (Condition)

Education (Condition)

  • Figure 2.1 Mechanisms by which conditional cash transfer programs may affect nutritional status

Hypothesis

Underlying Causes

HH Income & Women’s Income Control

Use of Health and Nutrition Services

School Enrolment & Attendance

Women’s Knowledge & Awareness

Women’s Time

CCT

Health Supply

Education supply

HH Food Security-Diet Quality /Quantity

Framework

Feeding & Care Practices

Educated Girls

Method

Intermediate Causes

Food / Nutrient Intake

Health

Results

Long Term

Conclusion

Household Members’ Nutrition

Source: adapted from (Leroy, Ruel, & Verhofstadt, 2009)


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

3. Analytical Framework

Intro

  • Figure 2.3 Beneficiary and No Beneficiary Households of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs.

Oportu-nidades

Y (Food)

C

Hypothesis

Beneficiary Household

A

CCT

F

Non-beneficiary Household

Framework

E

Method

D

Xmin

B

X (Education, Health)

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

3. Analytical Framework

Intro

  • Data: 2010 National Survey of Households’ Income and Expenditure (ENIGH).

  • “Mexican System of Equivalent Food” (PérezLizaur et al., 2008).

  • Table 1. Household Characteristics

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

3. Analytical Framework

Intro

  • Figure 3.1 Multistage Demand System

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

4. Methodology

Intro

Unit value

Quality Elasticity

Oportu-nidades

Leser’s approach

First Stage

Food-at-home

Hypothesis

Second & Third Stage

1. QUAIDS

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion

Ecker, O., & Qaim, M. (2011)

Tafere, K., Taffesse, A. S., & Tamiru, S. (2010).


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

4. Methodology

Intro

Second & Third Stage

2. Two step Censoring

Oportu-nidades

3. Endogeneity

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Income Elasticity

Elasticity

Method

Marshallian Price Elasticity

Results

Hicksian Price Elasticity

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

4. Methodology

Intro

Elasticity

Unconditional Elasticity

Oportu-nidades

Nutrient Elasticity wrt Expenditure

Hypothesis

CCT

Nutrient Elasticity wrt Price

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

4. Methodology

Intro

  • Limitations of the study

    • The disturbance terms of the final model are heteroscedastic(Tafere, Taffesse, & Tamiru, 2010),

    • The adding-up restriction cannot be imposed via parametric restrictions (Tafere, Taffesse, & Tamiru, 2010),

    • under- or overestimation of expenditure,

    • food purchased but not actually consumed,

    • intra-household food allocation,

    • food preparation,

    • number of food items considered in this research.

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

5. Results

Intro

Oportu-nidades

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

6. Conclusion

Intro

Oportu-nidades

  • Quantity

    • May not be enough to cover the necessity for food.

    • The cash transfer may be diverted into other type of expenditure.

  • Diversity

    • Increased within food groups.

    • Similar among groups.

  • Quality

    • Beneficiaries depend on few products (maize, beans, eggs, tomatoes) to get most of macro- and micronutrients.

    • An increase in income would increase staple food and complement consumption, more than animal products, vegetables and fruits.

  • Positive effect of nutritional and health education.

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

7. Recommendations

Intro

Oportu-nidades

  • Future research:

  • Increase the number of food items in the study.

  • Survey on consumption not on expenditure.

  • Other policy impacts.

  • Policy recommendation:

  • Near-to-cash transfer to meet the objective of the program.

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

Intro

Oportu-nidades

  • Illustration: Marcelo Romero

Thank you.

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


Ana elena meza gonz lez supervisor dr christi ne wieck ucl ubonn 08 07 2013

Intro

  • References

  • Behrman, J. R., & Hoddinott, J. F. (2005). “Programme Evaluation withUnobservedHeterogeneity and SelectiveImplementation: The Mexican ‘PROGRESA’ Impact on Child Nutrition.”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics , 67 (4), 547-569.

  • Ecker, O., & Qaim, M. (2011). Analyzing Nutritional Impacts of Policies. An Empirical Study for Malawi. World Development , 39 (3), 412-428.

  • Leroy, J. L., Ruel, M., & Verhofstadt, E. (2009). The Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer Programmes on Child Nutrition: a Review of Evidence using a Programme Theory Framework. Journal of Development Effectiveness , 1 (2), 103-129.

  • Pérez Lizaur, A. B., MarvánLaborde, L., & Palicios, B. (2008). SistemaMexicano de AlimentosEquivalentes (3rd Edition ed.). Mexico: Fomento de Nutrición y Salud, A. C.

  • Tafere, K., Taffesse, A. S., & Tamiru, S. (2010, April). Food DemandElasticities in Ethiopia: EstimatesUsingHousehold Income ConsumptionExpenditure (HICE) Survey Data . Discussion Paper No. ESSP2 011.

Oportu-nidades

  • Illustration: Marcelo Romero

Hypothesis

CCT

Framework

Method

Results

Conclusion


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