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The First U.S. Presidencies. America’s 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd Presidents: Washington, Adams and Jefferson. Bill of Rights – 1 st Amendment. Combination of five basic freedoms Put in your own words! Do Americans have an absolute right to free speech? Schenck v. United States.

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The First U.S. Presidencies

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The First U.S. Presidencies

America’s 1st, 2nd and 3rd Presidents:

Washington, Adams and Jefferson

Bill of Rights – 1st Amendment

  • Combination of five basic freedoms

  • Put in your own words!

  • Do Americans have an absolute right to free speech?

    • Schenck v. United States

Bill of Rights – 4th Amendment

  • “Search and seizure”

  • Put in your own words!

  • Can the police search your car without a court-issued search warrant when they stop you for speeding?

Beyond the Bill of Rights:Other Amendments to the Constitution

  • Amendment 12 – Election of Executives (1804)

  • Amendment 13 – Slavery abolished (1865)

  • Amendment 14 – Civil Rights (1868)

  • Amendment 15 – Right to Vote (1870)

  • Amendment 16 Income Tax (1913)

  • Amendment 18 – Prohibition (1919)

  • Amendment 19 – Women’s Suffrage (1920)

  • Amendment 21 – Repeal of Prohibition (1933)

  • Amendment 26 – 18-Year-Old Vote (1971)

  • Amendment 27 – Congressional Pay (1992)

Washington as President, 1789-1797:A Precedent Setter

A. Cabinet: President’s chief advisors

  • Secretary of State  Thomas Jefferson

  • Secretary of War  Henry Knox

  • Secretary of Treasury  Alexander Hamilton

    B. Judiciary Act of 1789: outlined the makeup of the Supreme Court and established lower federal courts

    C. Bill of Rights: Passed by Congress as a result of the ratification debates between Federalists & Anti-Federalists.

Alexander Hamilton

Married into wealth

Believed in a strong central government

Favored commerce and industry (north!)

Devised a National Bank

Thomas Jefferson

Spoke for the “common man”

Believed in states’ rights

Represented farming interests (south!)

Felt the Constitution did not allow for the creation of a National Bank

Why does Washington have a Federalist and Antifederalist in his Cabinet?

II. Rise of Political PartiesA. Conflict between Hamilton & Jefferson is rising…

  • Hamilton’s plan to pay back debt and build a successful economy:

    • Impose tariffs to pay debts and increase manufacturing

    • Create a national bank to manage the country’s finances

  • Jefferson OPPOSED Hamilton’s plan, saying the establishment of a national bank was not a power specifically mentioned in the Constitution.

  • Hamilton’s program wins when it is promised that the nation’s capital be moved southward…

“Compromise of 1790” = debate over national bank leads to establishment the capital at Washington, DC

Whiskey Rebellion

  • Debate comes to a boil with new tax on whiskey!

    • Farmers rebel against the tax

    • President Washington sent nearly 13,000 troops west to end rebellion and uphold the tax law

By 1794, the differences had solidified into the country’s first political parties:

Thinking Critically

  • What were the major differences between the Federalists and the Democrat Republicans?

  •  Though George Washington supported most Federalist beliefs, he refused to declare himself a Federalist. Why do you think this was so?

Washington’s “Farewell Address” 1796

Main points:

Washington warned against “political partisanship.”

He encouraged Americans to avoid “entangling alliances.”

Washington warned against secession. “Stay loyal to the union.”

Washington warned against sectionalism.

John Adams as President, 1797-1801

  • Election of 1796

    • President John Adams, Federalist

    • Vice president Thomas Jefferson, Democratic-Republican.

    • 12th amendment (1804): president and vice president officially elected on separate ballots.

  • Sectionalism: Placing interests of one region over the nation as a whole

    • Almost all electors from south voted for Jefferson (Democrat-Republican) while all in north voted for Adams (Federalist)

Politics and Style

  • Look at the images on page 191 of your text.

  • What differences can be seen from examining the clothing of the Democrat-Republicans and the Federalists?

Thomas Jefferson &The Election of 1800

“We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”

  • Peaceful transition of power to the Democratic-Republicans

  • Shirk the government and cut costs where ever possible:

    • major cuts to army/navy

    • ended taxes on stamps, land and whiskey

  • Changes in style  presidential handshake

  • “The Revolution of 1800 was as real a Revolution in the principles of our government as that of 1776 was in its form.” – T. Jefferson

John Marshall’s Supreme Court

  • Chief Justice appointee in Adam’s last days in office

  • Established the power of the Supreme Court

    • Power of judicial review  Supreme Court to judge whether actions of President, laws of congress or laws passed by states are constitutional

    • Federal law superior to state law

Landmark Decision: Marbury v. Madison (1803)

  • The facts:

    • William Marbury denied “justice of the peace” position by Jefferson administration

    • Brought suit against Secretary of State James Madison

  • The Issue:

    • Argued that Judiciary Act of 1789 gave Supreme Court power to make a government official perform certain duty

  • The Decision:

    • Supreme Court found Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional

    • Established judicial branch as equal partner in government – Not the states (as Jeffersonians had tried to establish)

The Louisiana Purchase:America Expands West

  • 1800 - Louisiana from Spain to Napoleon Bonaparte

  • 1803 - James Monroe/Robert Livingston to buy New Orleans & as much land as possible for $10 million

  • Facing slave revolts in

    Haiti and needing $ to

    fight British, Napoleon

    sells all LA for $15 mill,

    > doubling size of the US

    Why might the LA Purchase have been an

    embarrassment to Jefferson?

Toussaint L’ouverture, the “George Washington” of Haiti.

Napoleon, Emperor of France, 1799-1814

Lewis & Clark Expedition

  • 1804, Jefferson sends Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory

    • “Corps of Discovery”

    • Collect scientific data and learn about Native Americans

    • Sacajawea, a Native American woman, joined the expedition as a translator and guide

  • Should the government have a role in the exploration of little-known places today?

Jefferson Memorial

War of 1812: The War Hawks Demand War

  • Pres. James Madison called for a declaration of war in 1812

    • Blockade

    • Impressment

    • To gain more territory in the US

    • “War Hawks”

  • Dangerous  came very close to Revolutionary War

  • Battle of New Orleans – American victory led by Andrew Jackson

  • Burning of Washington, DC by the British

    • “Star Spangled Banner”

Congress Declares War, June 12th, 1812“War of 1812” fought from 1811-1815

  • USA vs. Great Britain—AGAIN!

  • Causes—The “War Hawks” of the West and South

    wanted war because:

    • Britain seized American ships

    • Chesapeake incident (1807)

      • British attacked U.S. ship off VA

      • 3 Ams killed, 18 wounded, 4 “deserters” taken.

    • Impressment

      • Est. 6,000 Americans impressed b/n 1808-1811!

    • British Canadians supplied arms to Native Americans.

Causes of the War of 1812

  • British Canadian support of Native Americans

  • Seizure of American ships

  • British impressment of American sailors

Significant Events

  • Washington DC burned in 1814

  • British attack on Ft. McHenry inspires national

    anthem “Star Spangled Banner” by Francis Scott Key.

  • Battle of New Orleans (Jan. 1815)

    • 8,000 Brits launch frontal assault on 7,000 Ams.

    • 2,000 Brit casualties vs. 70 Ams!!!!!

    • Made Andrew Jackson a war hero!

Results of the War of 1812:

Upsurge in American nationalism.

Treaty of Ghent (1814)

“Status quo ante bellum” no territory gained or lost.

Both sides agreed to stop the fighting.

Monroe Doctrine

  • Why issued?

  • Basic principles?

Missouri Compromise

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