John J. Kineman
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John J. Kineman Physical Scientist/Ecologist ( National Geophysical Data Center) Research Associate ( University of Colorado) [email protected] www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/ecosys.shtml. E C O S Y S T E M I N F O R M A T I C S. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Informatics.

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E c o s y s t e m i n f o r m a t i c s

John J. KinemanPhysical Scientist/Ecologist(National Geophysical Data Center)Research Associate(University of Colorado)[email protected]/seg/ecosys.shtml

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Biodiversity and ecosystem informatics

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Informatics

  • PCAST: “Research on, development of, and use of technological, sociological, and organizational tools and approaches for the dynamic acquisition, indexing, dissemination, storage, querying, retrieval, visualization, integration, analysis, synthesis, sharing (which includes electronic means of collaboration), and publicationof data such that economic and other benefits may be derived from the information by users from all sectors of society.”

  • NSF/NBII-2/BDEI: “Until recently, little attention has been paid to computer and information science and technology research in the biodiversity and ecosystem domain. The interdisciplinary field of biodiversity and ecosystem informatics (BDEI) is attempting to change that.”

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Report: Dave Maier, Eric Landis, Judy Cushing, Anne Frondorf, Avi Silberschatz, Mike Frame, and John L. Schnase (Editors). 2001. Research Directions in Biodieversity and Ecosystem Informatics.Report of an NSF, USGS, NASA Workshop on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Informatics held at NASA Goddard Space Fight Center, June 22-23, 2000.1 31pp.


Ecological indicators assessment and monitoring

Ecological Indicators, Assessment and Monitoring

  • NRC - National Ecological Indicators

  • Heinz - The State of the Nations Ecosystems

  • IPCC - Climate Change 2001

  • UNEP - Global Environmental Outlook - 3

  • WRI - Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems

  • WRI - World Resources 2000-2001

  • GOOS - Coastal Ocean Observing System

  • World Bank - World Development Report 2004

  • WRI - Reefs at Risk

  • CORIS - Coral Reef Action Strategy


Millennium ecosystem assessment

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

"In all five ecosystem types PAGE analyzed, ecosystem capacity is decreasing over a range of goods and services, not just one or two.“ (Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems)

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  • Problem:

  • Human demand for ecosystem goods and services is growing dramatically

  • We have made, and are making, changes to ecosystems of unprecedented magnitude


Biodiversity underlies all other goods and services and provides goods in its own right

Biodiversity underlies all other goods and services and provides “goods” in its own right.

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An estimated 10-15% of the world’s species will be committed to extinction over the next 30 years.


Ecosystem goods and services

Ecosystem "Goods and Services"

Ecosystem services: the conditions and processes supported by biodiversity through which ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life…

  • Biological Goods:e.g. food, water, fibre, fuel, other biological products and biotechnology

  • Ecological Functions:e.g. biodiversity, pollination, waste treatment, biogeochemical cycling

  • Human Values:e.g. cultural, aesthetic, social, psychological, and ethical

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Integrated ecosystem assessment optimizing multi sector tradeoffs

Integrated Ecosystem Assessment “Optimizing” Multi-Sector “Tradeoffs”

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Key

Grasslands

Freshwater

Forest

Coast

Agro

Condition

Excellent

Food-Fiber Production

Good

Fair

Water Quality

Poor

Bad

Water Quantity

Not Assessed

Biodiversity

Changing

Capacity

Increasing

Carbon Storage

Decreasing

Mixed


E c o s y s t e m i n f o r m a t i c s

IPCC: "Human activity is significantly affecting the climate system."

But what do we know about Ecosystems?

WRI: “…the PAGE study faced limitations in the basic data needed to determine the condition of global ecosystems.”

UNEP/GEO-3: “Missing data and data of uncertain quality are seriously hindering integrated environmental assessment at global and regional levels"


A data collaboratory

A Data "Collaboratory"

  • High Quality Publication of Case-study Data

Regional

Ecosystems

Assessment

Database

  • Modeling Support

Regional Ecosystems Assessment Database

  • Evaluation of Observing System Data


Pacific basin coastal ecosystems

Pacific Basin Coastal Ecosystems

  • Ecosystem Decline and Vulnerability

    • Causes and Effects

    • Management Options

  • Hotspot Detection and Early Warning

  • Ecological Indicators and Monitoring

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Regional ecosystems assessment database

Regional Ecosystems Assessment Database

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Niche modeling

Niche Modeling

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Salinity

Temperature

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We combine probability distributions to model the niche in “character” space.

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ECOSYSTEM INFORMATICS


Model interface

Model Interface

Multi-variate Stratification

Input

Output

User Definition

Delineation Method

Line fractal

dimension (FD)

Response function

Weight

factor

Select

data layers

Range

Spatial

Scale of unit

  • Define Classes

  • Define training

  • Define thresholds

  • System defined

  • Cluster analysis

  • Maximum liklihood

  • Baysian probabilities

  • gradient analysis

Time

Scale

  • temp

  • precip

  • swhc

  • PAR

  • LUI

  • [N]

  • elev

  • Vrel

  • PET

  • LAI

  • Pdens

100

100

50

75

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76

86

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10<23

300<700

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<10

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=

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<20

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linear

linear

linear

linear

log

sqrt

linear

sqr

e(3x-7)

1/x

linear

Decadal

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Annual

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Seasonal-

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Monthly-

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Daily

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Hourly

1.2D

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Coarse

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Fine

Previous Next

Preview

FD = 1.3420

Niche Model

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link FD with

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start time

Set preview background image

end time

Add data layer / time period

Save Model and Execute

time step

(run avg.)

Remove data layer

Reset defaults

ECOSYSTEM INFORMATICS


Adaptive ecological mapping

Adaptive Ecological Mapping

Potential

Eco-units

Iteration

and validation

Revisions

Model

improved data, time series

new measures

higher resolution

error correction

validation

Environmental Database

Test Observations (Satellite, in-situ, collections, research, etc.)

ECOSYSTEM INFORMATICS


Model test

Model Test

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Eastern Hardwood (T,P,E)


E c o s y s t e m i n f o r m a t i c s

  • What are the Measures?

  • MA Goal: “...to increase the amount, quality, and credibility of policy-relevant scientific research findings.”

  • What is Ecosystem Health?

  • What about

  • Complexity?


Goos phenomena of interest

GOOS: Phenomena of Interest

  • sea state and surface currents

  • sea level rise

  • coastal erosion and flooding

  • public health risks

  • habitat modification and loss (e.g., coral reefs, sea grass beds, tidal wetlands)

  • loss of biodiversity

  • oxygen depletion

  • harmful algal events

  • fish kills

  • declining fish stocks

  • beach and shellfish bed closures

  • increasing public health risks


Ecological indicators

Ecological Indicators?


E c o s y s t e m i n f o r m a t i c s

Heinz Report


E c o s y s t e m i n f o r m a t i c s

Hotspots (change, genetic)

Stratification (diversity)

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Coastal Ecosystems

- fragmentation and pattern

Available nitrogen?

Tankers,

Runoff, Water column?

dredging? trawling?

coastline modification?


E c o s y s t e m i n f o r m a t i c s

Core

Coastal

Species turnover / extinction

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Keystone species

Indicator species

Zooplankton?

Disease vectors


Ecological health indicators

Ecological Health Indicators

  • Toxic Pollution

    • Environmental Samples (air, water, sediments)

    • Tissue burdens, bioaccumulation

  • Biochemical Cycling

    • Nitrogen: "leaky ecosystems"

    • Disolved oxygen / Eutrophication ("dead" zones)

  • Species Composition & Range Shifts

    • Keystone & indicator species health & population

    • Extinction, invasion, replacement

    • Algal blooms, bacterial compositions

    • Diversity, richness

  • Ecosystem Structure and Function

    • Spatial extent, fragmentation, disturbance, conversion

    • Feedbacks, rates, stability, resilience, attractors, etc.

    • Productivity, food chain

  • Disease Vectors

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Ecological forcing

Ecological Forcing

  • Harvesting

    • Fish, shellfish, seaweed

    • Agricultural production and practices

  • Species and Habitat Changes

    • Introduced and Invasive Species

    • Extinction and replacement rates

    • Habitat conversion

  • Coastal Development

    • Human population, settlement, and use

    • Infrastructure

    • Hydrologic alteration

    • Toxic pollution, sewage

    • Shoreline change

  • Climate Change and Variability

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Integrated ecosystem assessment

Integrated Ecosystem Assessment

  • Status of ecological goods and services

    • Commercial harvest / sustainability

    • Valuation

    • Tradeoffs

  • Habitat & Niche Status

    • Habitat vs. environmental & human induced change

    • Protection needs (e.g., Gap Analysis)

    • Migration, invasion, colonization pathways

    • Biodiversity hotspots and genetic resources

  • Ecological Design

    • Management & protection areas

    • Development and management future scenarios

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Monitoring and detection

Monitoring and Detection

  • Hotspot Detection and Delineation

    • Sudden/significant ecological events

    • Genetic hotspots and resource stratification

  • Documenting Ecological Change

    • Cumulative/creeping processes and effects

    • Macro-ecological changes

    • Societal impacts

  • Early Warning

    • Drivers of ecosystem change

    • Molecular scale biological changes

    • Societal risks from ecological change

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Synthesis and decision support

Synthesis and Decision Support

  • Community-based assessment and planning

    • Ecological Characterization

    • Valuation of Goods and Services

  • Regional Planning

    • State-Federal collaboration

  • National Policy

    • Mandated Information

  • Data & Information Sharing

    • Indexing (metadata, etc.), Publication

    • Presentation products

  • Mitigation and Restoration Options

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Environmental controls

Environmental Controls

  • Climate (temperature, humidity, rain, etc.)

  • Weather, waves, tides

  • Water availability & quality

  • Atmospheric chemistry

  • Aerosols, turbidity

  • Soil/substrate characteristics

  • Sunlight

  • Nutrient availability / cycling

  • Physical and geographical structure

  • Ocean and atmosphere circulation & mixing

  • Deposition

  • Disturbance (natural & human)

  • Toxins

  • Biotic controls (competition, disease, allelopaths, etc.)

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A proposed soil moisture product time series from single instrument smmr ssmi

A Proposed Soil Moisture Product (time series), from Single Instrument (SMMR/SSMI):

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API = a – b(Tv + Th)0.5 – c(Tv –Th)d

WHERE,

API = Antecedent Precipitation Index

Tv =Vertical Polarization,

Th = Horizontal Polarization,

a = 139.55; b = 0.21; c = 86.12 and d = -0.017

This model has been tested to derive soil moisture from the least to the most densely vegetated areas (NDVI 0.3 to 0.65)

Dr. Nizam Ahmed

National Geophysical Data Center


Api vs soil moisture from met data

API vs. Soil Moisture (from met. data)

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Microwave emissivity and polarization difference

Accounted for 80 % of the observed variability in the soil moisture

Correlation coefficient 0.91 and Standard Error 1.18mm


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