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DEPARTMENT OF ENZYMOLOGY OF CARBOHYDRATES. HEAD: Peter Biely C O -WORKERS: Mária Vršanská, Mária Cziszárová, Vladimír Puchart, Katarína Kolenová, Silvia Špániková, Miroslava Křupalová. Research Direction.

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DEPARTMENT OF ENZYMOLOGY OF CARBOHYDRATES

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Department of enzymology of carbohydrates l.jpg

DEPARTMENT OF ENZYMOLOGY OF CARBOHYDRATES

HEAD: Peter Biely

CO-WORKERS:

Mária Vršanská, Mária Cziszárová,

Vladimír Puchart, Katarína Kolenová,

Silvia Špániková, Miroslava Křupalová


Research direction l.jpg

Research Direction

Investigation of processes of microbial degradation of plant cell walls – a part of the carbon cycle

Research is closely related to:

  • Development of economically feasible and enviromentally friendly processes of bioconversion of renewable lignocellulose biomass to useful products

  • Introduction of enzymatic technologies in the pulp and paper industry, food industry and agriculture

  • Preparation of functional food additives on the basis of plant polysaccharides


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Main Focus

  • Enzymatic degradation of plant hemicelluloses: xylans and galactoglucomannans, plus linkages carbohydrates-lignin

  • Search for new enzymes and novel catalytic activities – number of covalent linkages in plant cell walls is larger than the number of so far described enzymes

  • Regulatory aspects of the formation of hydrolytic enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases, esterases) in microorganisms, enzyme isolation, properties, mode of action

  • Application of glycosyl hydrolases and esterases as biocatalyst for synthesis of new biologically and nutritionally important carbohydrate derivatives


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Example of Hypothetical Plant Xylan and Enzymes of Its Hydrolysis

PhA (Fe, p-Coum)



Araf Araf

Ac 1 1



 3  ( ) 3 () 3

Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl1-4Xyl-4Xyl1-

2 2 2 

1 Ac 1

MeGlcA MeGlcA

 endo--1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) 

-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1..37) or exo--xylanaseXyl1-4Xyl1-

-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.139)

-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55)

 feruloylesterase or p-coumaroylesterase (EC3.1.1.76)

 acetylxylan esterase (EC 3.1.1.72)

 Major depolymerizing enzyme and its inhibitors– receive main attention

Enzyme described first by

members of the Department (1985)


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Industrial Applications of Endoxylanases

Successful biotechnologies of the last decade

  • Pulp and paper industry (cellulase-free xylanases)

    –bleaching of kraft pulp – reduction of toxic

    chemicals needed for lignin extraction

  • Animal diet

    • hydrolysis of highly viscous arabinoxylans – improvement of digestibity of fodders based on cereals

  • Bakery

    – improvement of dough handling by decreasing viscosity of

    arabinoxylans in flour – change in the quality of baked products

  • Preparation of xylooligosaccharides

    – functional food additives, prebiotics, moisture preserving

    compounds


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Bioconversion of Plant Hemicellulose


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Examples of Reverse Enzymatic Reactions

  • Acetylation of carbohydrates in microemulsions with a fungal acetylxylan esterase (2004)

  • Unique regioselective acetylation of oligosaccharides by fungal hemicellulolytic acetyl esterase in water-vinyl acetate mixtures (2005)

  • -Galactosylation of internal linkages of oligosaccharides (e.g. β-1,4-Man5) by a fungal -galactosylase: Gal donor 4-nitrophenyl -Galp (2005)

Cellopentaose - position O-3

of the non-reducing residue


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