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Cognitive Machine Learning. Perspective on Processing. 2008-20817 Ko Youngkil. outline. Level of Pricessing Transfer Appropriate Processing Organization and Distinctiveness The Encoding Specificity Principle Context and Memory The Process Dissociation Framework.

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Perspective on Processing

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Cognitive machine learning

Cognitive Machine Learning

Perspective on Processing

2008-20817

KoYoungkil


Outline

outline

  • Level of Pricessing

  • Transfer Appropriate Processing

  • Organization and Distinctiveness

  • The Encoding Specificity Principle

  • Context and Memory

  • The Process Dissociation Framework


Level of processing 1 3

Level of Processing (1/3)

  • Type of processing is more important than the underlying theoretical structure.

  • For assumption

    • Memory as the result of a series of analyses

    • The deeper the level, the more durable memory

    • Rehearsal is relatively unimportant

    • On processing rather than on structure

  • Hyde and Jenkins(1973)

    • Presence of the letter E or G

    • Noun or verb

    • Rate the frequency

    • How pleasant or unpleasant it was


Level of processing 2 3

Level of Processing (2/3)


Level of processing 3 3

Level of Processing (3/3)

  • Craik and Watkins(1973)

    • Maintenance rehearsal does not lead to improved memory

    • This result poses a problem for the modal model

  • Problem

    • No independent method for determining, whether process A is deeper or shallower than process B

    • Almost on encoding and little about retrieval


Transfer appropriate processing

Transfer Appropriate Processing

  • Includes retrieval

  • Morris, Bransford, and Franks(1977)

    • A standard recognition test

      • A target word has been seen in previous

    • A rhyming recognition test

      • A word rhymed with one of the target words

    • No one type of processing is good for all tests.


Organization and distinctiveness

Organization and Distinctiveness

  • Organization

    • Relationships among the information that is to be remembered in memory

    • Recall more words from a categorized list

  • Hunt (1981, 1993)

    • Organization emphasizes relational processing, item-specific processing emphasizes the particular to-be-remembered item.

    • Both are important


The encoding specificity principle

The Encoding Specificity Principle

  • The recollection of an event or a certain aspect of it depends on the interaction between the properties of the encoded event and the properties of the retrieval information.

  • Thomson & Tulving


Context and memory 1 3

Context and Memory (1/3)

  • Smith(1979)

    • Basement room (18 words)

    • Soundproof booth (12 words)

    • Booth with reinstate (17.2 words)

  • Susukita(1934)

    • Something learned while calm cannot be recalled when in a state of shock, but can be recalled at a later time when calm is restored.


Context and memory 2 3

Context and Memory (2/3)

  • Eich and Metcalfe(1989)

    • Experiment with a mood-manipulation

    • Recalled more words when their moods matched than when the moods were mismatched.


The process dissociation framework

The Process Dissociation Framework

  • Separate the recollective process from the automatic process

    • Exclusion test : only automatic or incidental processes can contribute

    • Inclusion test : both processes are allowed to contribute


Perspective on processing

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