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Creating ICT Clusters of Innovative Small Businesses. August 30, 2004 Keio University Shonan - Fujisawa Prof.Daniel Rouach [email protected] Creating ICT Clusters. Success Factors. Creating Clusters. Regional Strategies to Create Technology Clusters Prof Daniel Rouach,

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Creating ict clusters of innovative small businesses l.jpg

Creating ICT Clusters of Innovative Small Businesses

August 30, 2004 Keio UniversityShonan - Fujisawa

Prof.Daniel Rouach

[email protected]


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Creating ICT Clusters

Success Factors


Creating clusters l.jpg

Creating Clusters

Regional Strategies to Create Technology Clusters

Prof Daniel Rouach,

ESCP-EAP Paris

European School of Management


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1. Forces Behind Cluster Formation

2. Type of Clusters &

Key Ingredients

3. Grenoble France

Strategies to Create Clusters


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Creating Regional Wealthin the Innovation Economy

Jeff Saperstein and Daniel Rouach

[email protected] and [email protected]


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Models, Perspectives, andBest Practices

Building Regional Centers of Entrepreneurship – and Sustaining them.

Financial Times – Prentice Hall

Pearson Education - 2002


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Silicon Valley

Munich

Cambridge

Sophia Antipolis

Grenoble

Taiwan

Ireland,

Israel,

India

Regions Selected « Gold Medalists »


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1. Forces Behind Cluster Formation

Strategies to Create Clusters


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Five Forces behind Cluster Formation

1. Universities

5. Competitive

Intelligence &

Networking

2. Leading

Companies

Clusters

4. Active

Government

Support

3. Entrepreneurs

Spirit

3. Venture

Capital


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Cluster Formation Definition Michael Porter

“Clusters are Concentrations of Highly Specialized Skills and Knowledge, Institutions, Rivals, Related Businesses, and Sophisticated Customers in a Particular Nation or Region.”


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Proximity,Special relationships Michael Porter

“Proximity in Geographic, Cultural and Institutional Terms allows Special Access, Special Relationships, Better Information, Powerful Incentives, and other Advantages in Productivity andProductivity Growth that are difficult to tap from a distance.”

As a result in a Cluster, the Whole

is Greater than the Sum of the Parts


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Elements of Clusters Why do clusters work?

  • Better access to employees.

  • Better access to suppliers.

  • Better access to specialized information.

  • Access to public goods (universities).

  • Location is self-reinforcing – increasing returns.


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Elements of Clusters Distance matters!

  • Collaboration over distance is hard… particularly for innovative activities

  • Distance slows work

  • Distance leads to breakdowns

  • Distance keeps you far from the customer


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Elements of ClustersWhy do clusters work?

  • Workers cultivate social & professional affiliations within the cluster– friends and acquaintances – human linkages.

  • Clusters have most sophisticated buyers, so firms have best view on the market.

  • Site location – outside firms set up next to like firms. “The buzz.”

  • Peer pressure


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Elements of Cluster

  • Geographical Proximity

  • Critical Mass of firms

  • Complementary firms

  • Replacement of Vertical Integration by Specialized Suppliers


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Clusters are Magnets

“Clusters are a Driving Force

in increasing exports

and are Magnets

for attracting Foreign Investment”

Michael Porter . Feb 2000 Economic development Quartely Vol 14 p.15


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.

Where is the RIGHT place

to BE ?

Intellectual Capital of Regions


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2. Type of Clusters &

Key Ingredients

Strategies to Create Clusters


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Wired’s 1st Tier Clusters

Stockholm

Helsinki, Finland

Boston, MA

Cambridge, England

Montreal

Dublin, Ireland

Seattle

San Francisco

Israel

London

New York City

Silicon Valley

Taipei, Taiwan

Albuquerque

AustinTX

Bangalore, India

Source: “Venture Capitals” Wired Magazine July 2000


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Wired’s 2nd Tier Clusters

Malmo, Sweden

Virginia

Oulu, Finland

Chicago

Flanders, Belgium

Raleigh-Durham, NC

Bavaria, Germany

Kyoto, Japan

Thames Valley, England

Tokyo

Paris

Los Angeles

Hsinchu, Taiwan

Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Hong Kong

Queensland

Sao Paulo

Melbourne

Source: “Venture Capitals” Wired Magazine July 2000


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Wired’s 3rd Tier Clusters

Glasgow-Edinburgh, Scotland

Trondheim, Norway

Saxony, Germany

Salt Lake City, UT

Sophia Antipolis, France

Santa Fe, NM

El Gazala, Tunisia

Inchon, South Korea

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Singapore

Campinas, Brazil

Gauteng, South Africa

Source: “Venture Capitals” Wired Magazine July 2000


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Red = First Tier

Orange = Second Tier

White = Third Tier

Wired’s Clusters

Montreal

Glasgow-Edinburgh, Scotland

Boston, MA

Trondheim, Norway

Stockholm

Virginia

Saxony, Germany

Chicago

Cambridge, England

Oulu, Finland

Helsinki, Finland

Flanders, Belgium

Raleigh-Durham, NC

Kyoto, Japan

Malmo, Sweden

Dublin, Ireland

Seattle

Bavaria, Germany

Tokyo

Thames Valley, England

San Francisco

Israel

London

New York City

Sophia Antipolis, France

Hsinchu, Taiwan

Taipei, Taiwan

Silicon Valley

Paris

Salt Lake City, UT

Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Bangalore, India

Hong Kong

Los Angeles

Santa Fe, NM

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Albuquerque

El Gazala, Tunisia

Queensland

AustinTX

Singapore

Gauteng, South Africa

Melbourne

Campinas, Brazil

Sao Paulo

Source: “Venture Capitals” Wired Magazine July 2000


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Type of Clusters Silicon Valley or Death Valley

  • Baby Cluster : Atlas valley

  • Babel Cluster : Sophia Antipolis

  • Island Cluster : Wadi Valley (Israël)

  • Magnet Cluster : Silicon Valley

  • Network Cluster : Bangalore


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Success FactorsCreating or Destroying Value ? Ingredients For Success

  • # 1 Cross Fertilisation

  • # 2 Cooperation /Competition

  • # 3 A Leader

  • # 4 Leading Firm + Start-ups

  • # 5 Incubation Spirit


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Success factorsIngredients for Success

# 6 . Networking Culture

# 7 . Magic Atmosphere

# 8 . No Not Invented Here Syndrome

# 9 . Knowledge Transfer

# 10. Diasporas Culture


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Success factorsIngredients for Success

# 11 . Education Investment

# 12. Risk & Chutzpah !

# 13. Branding

# 14. Competitive Intelligence

# 15. Venture Capital


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The Magnet ClusterSilicon Valley Ethos

  • "Can do" Attitude with Contagious Enthusiasm for Collaborative Projects

  • Emphasis on Teamwork, Openness and Egalitarianism

  • Encouragement for Risk-Taking, Innovation, and Tolerance for Failure that is based on Learning so Best Practices can be Discovered and Applied in Future Projects

  • A focus on Productivity and Practical Goal Setting

  • The ability to be Intellectually Agile, while working on projects that have tight, ambitious timetables for completion


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The Magnet ClusterSilicon Valley Ecocluster

  • Regional Network-Based Industrial System : Proximity of All Professions and Skills needed for technology based businesses.

  • Social Networks and Open Labor Markets that encourage Experimentation and Entrepreneurs

  • Informal Communication and Collaborative Practices

  • Abundant Venture Capital


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The Magnet ClusterSilicon Valley Ecocluster

  • Educational Institutions and Technology Parks as Incubator Hubs and a Skilled Workforce Generator

  • Government at Federal, State and Local Level facilitating the Speed for Investment and Quick Problem-Solving


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The Magnet ClusterSilicon Valley Ethos

  • Individual Freedom and Self-Discipline are Integrated

  • People are Respected for their Knowledge and Contribution to the Team, not their Job Title

  • Knowledge must be translated into Action with a potentially positive outcome


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3. Grenoble France

Strategies to Create Clusters


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  • Example Grenoble - France

    • A high-tech hub: Digital, IT, micro & nanotechnologies

    • Mission: No 1 in Europe for micro & nanotechnologies

    • Influence by local environment and tradition

    • Entrepreneurial spirit: spin-offs, self-sufficiency


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Grenoble

History of hydroelectric power & atomic energy

Isolated environment but market exists

A pioneering and self-sufficient spirit.

Local

Culture

4 renowned universities including the INPG

“Communication exchange” between Universities, Research Laboratories & Industry

Informal network

20 years history of spin-offs, entrepreneurship

Centre d’ Energie Atomique(CEA):key player

Local hero: Louis NEEL

Spin-off

creation

Technology Transfer between research and industry

“Micro & Nano-Technology House”

Aim: no. 1 in Europe for Micro & Nano Technology

Future

Strategy


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Challenges and problems for Grenoble“to stay competitive and to attract multinationals”

  • Regional

  • Infrastructure factors: no TGV from Lyon, isolation.

  • Competition: Lyon & Sophia-Antipolis are in the same region.

  • National

  • Brittany, Lorraine, Paris and Sophia-Antipolis are national competitors for high-tech development.

  • International

  • Grenoble is not a major European city. In competition with Munich, Dublin, Barcelona and Stockholm.


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Role of Government in Grenoble

Regional and

local governments

Intellectual

capital

National

Government

1970s

2000+

1900+

1950s

Research and

atomic energy

Microelectronics

and high-tech

Micro & Nano

technology

Hydro-electric

power

Spin-offs

Incubators

CEA

Science

parks

Decentral-ization 1982


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Government

Local Hero:

Louis NEEL

Isolation

pioneering spirit

self-sufficiency

Leti

INRIA

CEA

INPG

9 engineering

schools

State-funded

research labs

« Informal Network »

ZIRST

Spin-offs

20 yrs

4Universities

2 business schools

Traditional

Industry 1950s

Hydro & atomic energy

Industry:

dynamic

companies

Physical Environment

Alps, Italy, Germany,

Switzerland

Regional

organisations

AEPI, CCIG


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Grenoble

« spin-off slopes »

Pioneering

spirit

Inspiration

Intellectual

capital

creativity

ideas

entrepreurship

Informal

business

network

Technological

know-how


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c

petition

oo

ooperation

pportunity

COOPETITION

echnology Transfer

nnovation

ntelligence

etworking


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Competitive Intelligence

  • Competitive intelligenceis the art of locating, collecting, processing and storing information to be made available to people at all levels of the firm with a view to shaping its future, but also protecting its present against competitive threat.

  • It is legal and it respects a code of ethics.

  • In other words, business intelligence is the transfer of knowledge from the environment to the organisation with respect to established rules.


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CEA DTA Competitive Intelligence

Competitive Intelligence -

“Skills and knowledge have become the only source of sustainable long-term competitive advantage”


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Competitive Intelligence

The intelligence pyramid

STEP 3: Drive Decisions

The

Intelligence

System :

Security

Analysis : the

Art and the Discipline

STEP 2: Analyze the Data

Sources :

Laying the Foundations...

Guidelines and Checklists

STEP 1: Build the Foundation


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The key information sources of

Competitive Intelligence

The value chain of information

Technical

intelligence

Marketing

intelligence

Financial

intelligence

Production

intelligence

Sales

intelligence

Active

Technical

watch

Marketing

watch

Financial

watch

Production

watch

Sales

watch

Passive

R&D

Marketing

Finance

Production

Sales


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The key information sources of

Competitive Intelligence

Classifying according to information types

80 %

80 %

20 %

20 %

HOT

SECRET

COLD INFORMATION

White

Grey

Black

Information

Information

Information

Industrial

espionage

Grey Information

Competitive

Competitive

Black Information

Intelligence

Intelligence


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The key information sources of

Competitive Intelligence

  • Partner groups

  • Subconctractors

  • Suppliers

  • Clients

  • Competitors

  • Professional Groups

  • Financial partners

  • Fortuitous sources

  • Train, plane, « the street »

  • Stagiaires...

  • Institutions

  • Administrations

  • International organisations

  • Associations

  • Research Centers

  • Institutes and foundations

  • Universities

  • New Networks

  • Internet

  • Compuserve

Sources

  • Personal Networks

  • Clubs

  • Colleagues

  • Confrères

  • Consultants and experts

  • Ingineering Schools

  • Universities

  • Experts

  • Technical Centers

  • Consultants

  • Information providers

  • Press

  • Booksellers

  • Libraries

  • Internet servers, brokers

  • Data bases

  • Information Centers

  • Events

  • Colloquium

  • Fairs

  • Business trips


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Conclusion : Why do clusters work?

  • Network effects!

    • Direct effects: firm-to-firm learning

    • Indirect effects: When key inputs are in abundant supply


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Conclusion : Cluster results

  • Each firm is more productive

  • Each firm is more innovative

  • Formation of new businesses is higher


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