Teaching Vocabulary
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Teaching Vocabulary to Struggling Readers Michael C. McKenna Georgia Southern University. What is vocabulary?. word-hoard. estuary. argon. id. What is vocabulary?. Speaking vocabulary Listening vocabulary Reading vocabulary Writing vocabulary General vocabulary

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Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Teaching Vocabulary

to

Struggling Readers

Michael C. McKenna

Georgia Southern University


What is vocabulary

What is vocabulary?


Word hoard

word-hoard

estuary

argon

id


What is vocabulary1

What is vocabulary?

  • Speaking vocabulary

  • Listening vocabulary

  • Reading vocabulary

  • Writing vocabulary

  • General vocabulary

  • Technical vocabulary

  • Meaning vocabulary

Modality

Domain


What is vocabulary2

What is vocabulary?

  • Speaking vocabulary

  • Listening vocabulary

  • Reading vocabulary

  • Writing vocabulary

  • General vocabulary

  • Technical vocabulary

  • Meaning vocabulary

Modality

Domain


What is vocabulary3

What is vocabulary?

  • Speaking vocabulary

  • Listening vocabulary

  • Reading vocabulary

  • Writing vocabulary

  • General vocabulary

  • Technical vocabulary

  • Meaning vocabulary

Modality

Domain


What is vocabulary4

What is vocabulary?

  • Speaking vocabulary

  • Listening vocabulary

  • Reading vocabulary

  • Writing vocabulary

  • General vocabulary

  • Technical vocabulary

  • Meaning vocabulary

Modality

Domain


What is vocabulary5

What is vocabulary?

  • Speaking vocabulary

  • Listening vocabulary

  • Reading vocabulary

  • Writing vocabulary

  • General vocabulary

  • Technical vocabulary

  • Meaning vocabulary

Modality

Domain


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

1755 Dictionary of the

English Language


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

1755 Dictionary of the

English Language

114,000 words


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

1755 Dictionary of the

English Language

114,000 words

impertransibility

queck

nould


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

1755 Dictionary of the

English Language

114,000 words

2005 Oxford English

Dictionary (3rd ed.)


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

1755 Dictionary of the

English Language

114,000 words

2005 Oxford English

Dictionary (3rd ed.)

660,000+ words


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

webcam

cyberphobic

doh

2005 Oxford English

Dictionary (3rd ed.)

660,000+ words


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

English users follow set rules for coining new words, thus adding greatly to the number of potential words in the language.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

English users follow set rules for coining new words, thus adding greatly to the number of potential words in the language.

The postman likes our street because it is dogless.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Are you a

logophile?


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

50K

40K

30K

20K

10K

0

5,000 •

1,500•

K12


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

50K

40K

30K

20K

10K

0

45,000

17,000

5,000

1,500

K12


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

How do we know which words to teach?


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers

Tier 3• Rare words

• 73,500 word families K-12

• Usually content-area related

• Examples: isotope, estuary

Tier 2• Important to academic success

• 7,000 word families

• Not limited to one content area

• Examples: fortunate, ridiculous

Tier 1• The most familiar words

• 8,000 word families

• Known by average 3rd grader

• Examples: happy, go


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers

Tier 3• Rare words

• 73,500 word families K-12

• Usually content-area related

• Examples: isotope, estuary

Tier 2• Important to academic success

• 7,000 word families

• Not limited to one content area

• Examples: fortunate, ridiculous

Tier 1• The most familiar words

• 8,000 word families

• Known by average 3rd grader

• Examples: happy, go


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers

Tier 3• Rare words

• 73,500 word families K-12

• Usually content-area related

• Examples: isotope, estuary

Tier 2• Important to academic success

• 7,000 word families

• Not limited to one content area

• Examples: fortunate, ridiculous

Tier 1• The most familiar words

• 8,000 word families

• Known by average 3rd grader

• Examples: happy, go


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers

Tier 3• Rare words

• 73,500 word families K-12

• Often content-area related

• Examples: isotope, estuary

Tier 2• Important to academic success

• 7,000 word families

• Not limited to one content area

• Examples: fortunate, ridiculous

Tier 1• The most familiar words

• 8,000 word families

• Known by average 3rd grader

• Examples: happy, go


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers

Tier 3• Rare words

• 73,500 word families K-12

• Often content-area related

• Examples: isotope, estuary

Tier 2• Important to academic success

• 7,000 word families

• Not limited to one content area

• Examples: fortunate, ridiculous

Tier 1• The most familiar words

• 8,000 word families

• Known by average 3rd grader

• Examples: happy, go


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

What are some of the guiding principles of teaching vocabulary?


Preteach key words to improve comprehension

Guiding Principle

Preteach key words to improve comprehension.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

In 1367, Marain and the settlements ended a seven-year war with the Langurians and Pitoks. As a result of this war, Languria was driven out of East Bacol. Marain would now rule Laman and the other lands that once belonged to Languria. This brought peace to the Bacolean settlements. The settlers no longer had to worry about attacks from Laman. The Bacoleans were happy to be part of Marain in 1367. Yet a dozen years later, these same people would be fighting the Marish for independence, or freedom from United Marain’s rule.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

In 1763, Britain and the colonies ended a seven-year war with the French and Indians. As a result of this war, France was driven out of North America. Britain would now rule Canada and the other lands that once belonged to France. This brought peace to the American colonies. The settlers no longer had to worry about attacks from Canada. The Americans were happy to be part of Britain in 1763. Yet a dozen years later, these same people would be fighting the British for independence, or freedom from Great Britain’s rule.


Provide more than definitions

Guiding Principle

Provide more than definitions.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

WORD =DEFINITION


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

WORD =DEFINITION

StimulusResponse


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

WORD =DEFINITION

StimulusResponse

truncate“to cut off”


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

WORD =DEFINITION

StimulusResponse

truncate“to cut off”

“She truncated the lights.”


Combine definitions and contextual examples

Combine definitions and contextual examples.

Guiding Principle


Connotations

Connotations

What’s the difference between a fiddle and a violin?


Introduce new words in related clusters

Guiding Principle

Introduce new words in related clusters.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

antennae

leg

thorax

wing

abdomen

In content areas,

clustering words is natural!


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

But general vocabulary words can also be clustered –

if you work at it!


Stress the connections among related terms

Guiding Principle

Stress the connections among related terms.


Stress connections among unrelated terms

Guiding Principle

Stress connections among unrelated terms.

“Silly Questions”

Would a hermit be gregarious?

Could a virtuoso be a rival?

– Beck & McKeown


Stress connections among unrelated terms1

Guiding Principle

Stress connections among unrelated terms.


Tie new words to old knowledge

Guiding Principle

Tie new words to old knowledge.


Comprehension is building bridges from the new to the known pearson johnson

“Comprehension is building bridges from the new to the known.”– Pearson & Johnson


Provide brief periodic review

Guiding Principle

Provide brief, periodic review.


Massed vs distributed practice

massedvs.distributedpractice


Maximize the volume of reading that students do

Guiding Principle

Maximize the volume of reading that students do.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

The Vocabulary Catch-22

Children need to learn more words to read well, but they need to read well to learn more words.

McKenna, M.C. (2004). Teaching vocabulary to struggling older readers.

Perspectives, 30(1), 13-16.


Minimize rote copying of definitions

Guiding Principle

Minimize rote copying of definitions.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

What are some research-based ways of teaching vocabulary?


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Some Research-Based Techniques

  • Read-Alouds

  • Semantic Feature Analysis

  • Other Charting Approaches

  • Graphic Organizers

  • Semantic Maps (webs)

  • Word Sorts

  • Word Lines

  • List-Group-Label

  • Possible Sentences


Read alouds

Read-Alouds


Semantic feature analysis

Semantic Feature Analysis


Popinary

popinary


Popinary1

popinary

“a fry cook”


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

humansadultfemale

woman + +

man + o

girl o +

boy o o


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary + o o

chef + + +

baker + o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary + o o

chef + + +

baker + o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary + o o

chef + + +

baker + o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+ o o

chef + + +

baker + o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+o o

chef + + +

baker + o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+oo

chef + + +

baker + o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+oo

chef+ + +

baker + o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+oo

chef+ + +

baker+ o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+oo

chef+ + +

baker+o +adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+oo

chef+ + +

baker+o+adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+oo

chef+ + +

baker+++adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

cooksfriesmakesbakes

thingssalads

popinary+oo

chef+ + +

bakers++adultfemale


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

PlanetsMoon/sRocky SurfaceRings

Mercury o+ o

Venus o+ o

Earth ++ o

Mars ++ o

Jupiter +o +

Saturn +o +

Uranus +o +

Neptune +o +

Pluto ++ o


Graphic organizers

Graphic Organizers


A graphic organizer is a diagram that shows how key terms are related

A graphic organizer is a diagram that shows how key terms are related.


What s so great about them

What’s so great about them?

  • They help kids “see” abstract content.

  • There is little to “read.”

  • They are easy to construct and discuss.

  • Technical terms can be taught in clusters.

  • They enhance recall and understanding.

  • They have an impressive research base.


Semantic maps

Semantic Maps

(Word Webs)


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Founding

Father

Daylight

Savings

Poor Richard’s

Almanac

Ben Franklin

Invented

bifocals

Electricity

(kite)

Philadelphia


Word lines

Word Lines


Hot cold

hot cold


Hot tepid cold

hot tepid cold


Hot tepid cold sweltering

hot tepid coldsweltering


Hot tepid cold sweltering chilly

hot tepid coldswelteringchilly


Hot tepid cold sweltering chilly1

hot tepid coldswelteringchilly


Word sorts

Word Sorts


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Open Sort

Categories are not given.

thoraxpupa

abdomenantennae

winglarva

adulthead

eggleg


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Closed Sort

PartsStages


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Closed Sort

PartsStages

thoraxpupa

abdomenegg

winglarva

headadult

leg

antennae


List group label

List-Group-Label


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

List

Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit.

Group

Students suggest logical ways to group the words.

Label

Students suggest a label for each group they form.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

List

Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit.

Group

Students suggest logical ways to group the words.

Label

Students suggest a label for each group they form.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

List

Students brainstorm all the words they can recall at the end of a unit.

Group

Students suggest logical ways to group the words.

Label

Students suggest a label for each group they form.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

no legsgarter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

no legsgarter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

no legsgarter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead

Kinds of Snakes

garter

boa

copperhead

cobra

coral

Things Snakes Might Have

rattle

scales

fang

no legs

venom

tail


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

no legsgarter

boa

venom

cobra

fang

scales

coral

tail

rattle

copperhead

Kinds of Snakes

garter

boa

copperhead

cobra

coral

Things Snakes Might Have

rattle

scales

fang

no legs

venom

tail


Possible sentences

Possible Sentences


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Present a list of 8-12 words the students will encounter in the new unit.

Add a few familiar terms.

Ask for sentences containing at least two of the words.

Teach the unit.

Return to the sentences.

Together decide whether they are correct or can be edited to make them so.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

Please suggest a sentence containing at least two of the following terms:

connotation

word family

lexicon

syntactic clue

distributed practice

eponym

toponym

popinary


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

What can we do to increase

children’s vocabularies in

Title I schools?


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

1. Make vocabulary a schoolwide goal

  • Amend your plan.

  • Establish testable goals.

  • Raise consciousness.

  • Communicate expectations.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

2. Provide professional development

  • Focus on research-based methods.

  • Ensure ties to actual materials.

  • Provide follow-up to aid implementation.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

3. Establish teacher study groups

  • Organize groups by grade level.

  • Provide time for discussion.

  • Reward participation.

  • Encourage administrator participation.

  • Select resource books.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

4. Consider supplemental and

intervention programs

  • Tie their use to assessments.

  • Establish guidelines for use.

  • Locate product reviews.


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

http://oregonreadingfirst.uoregon.edu


Teaching vocabulary to struggling readers michael c mckenna georgia southern university

http://www.fcrr.org


Mmckenna@georgiasouthern edu

[email protected]

http://www.georgiasouthern.edu/

~mmckenna


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