chapter 1 cells and kingdoms
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Chapter 1 Cells and kingdoms. Lesson 1 Cells. Organism: A living thing Cell: The smallest unit of living things that carry out the basic processes of life. Animal Cell. Round shape, smaller No cell wall, only a cell membrane

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lesson 1 cells
Lesson 1 Cells
  • Organism: A living thing
  • Cell: The smallest unit of living things that carry out the basic processes of life
animal cell
Animal Cell
  • Round shape, smaller
  • No cell wall, only a cell membrane
  • Some have many small vacuoles, and others may not have any vacuoles
  • Gets energy from other animal/plant cells
plant cell
Plant Cell
  • Box-like shape, larger
  • Have an additional outer covering around the outside (cell wall)
  • Usually have one large, central vacuole
  • Makes own food in chloroplasts (green structure, contains chlorophyll)
  • Gets energy from the sunlight
how are cells organized
How are cells organized?
  • Tissue: similar cells working together at the same job, or function
  • Organ: a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function (example: heart, liver, brain, skin)
  • Organ System: organs that work together to perform a certain function (example: circulatory, digestive, respiratory)

Organ

Tissue

Organ

Organ System

lesson 2 classifying life
Lesson 2 Classifying Life
  • Scientists organize organisms by sorting, or classifying, them into groups according to shared characteristics
  • Kingdoms are grouped by internal form and structure
  • The narrowest (smallest) group an organism can be classified into is a species
plant kingdom vascular
Plant Kingdom (Vascular)
  • Vessels that run up and down the body
  • Vascular tissue carries water and nutrients from the plants roots up to its leaves; it also moves sugars made in the leaves to other parts of the plant
  • Typically a taller plant
plant kingdom nonvascular
Plant Kingdom (Nonvascular)
  • Smaller plant
  • Remain small and close to the ground, where they soak up water directly

Have you seen moss or trees that look like this?

lesson 3 plants
Lesson 3 Plants
  • Stems come in 2 basic forms
    • Soft stems
    • Woody stems
  • Soft stems: not as strong as woody stems; soft, green, can bend (less likely to be damaged in a storm)
  • Woody stems: stronger than soft stems; hard, brown

(more likely to be damaged in a storm because they can’t bend and they grow tall, which makes it easier to be struck by lightning).

slide11

Soft stem

Woody stem

what are stems
What are stems?
  • Phloem: moves sugars that are made in the plant’s leaves to other parts of the plant; transports sugars up from one part of a plant to another
  • Xylem and phloem cells are produced in the cambium, then move inward.
what are leaves
What are leaves?
  • The leaves of a plant have the important function of carrying out photosynthesis, or the process of making food.
what are leaves continued
What are leaves?...continued
  • The top surface of a leaf has a waxy cuticle, a waterproof layer that prevents moisture from evaporating
  • Which could survive longer without water: a thick cuticle or a thin cuticle? How could you test this?
lesson 4 classifying animals
Lesson 4 Classifying Animals
  • Asymmetrical: cannot be divided into mirror images.
  • Radial Symmetry: All body parts are arranged around a central point; this type of organism has more than one line that divides the organism into 2 mirror images.
lesson 4 continued
Lesson 4 continued
  • Monotreme: a mammal that lays eggs (examples: duck-billed platypus, spiny anteater)
  • Marsupial:a pouched mammal; give birth to partially developed offspring (examples: kangaroos, koala bears)
  • Placental mammal: the young develop within its mother (examples: humans, dogs, tigers, elephants, whales)
lesson 5 animal systems
Lesson 5 Animal Systems
  • Skeletal System: bones, tendons, ligaments
  • Muscular system: provides the power to produce movement
  • Digestive system: long tube in which food is broken down into nutrients an organism can use

Digestive System

Muscular System

Skeletal System

lesson 5 continued
Lesson 5 Continued…
  • Esophagus: a muscular tube that contracts and expands to squeeze chewed food down the stomach
  • Bronchi:small branch-like tubes inside the lungs, which empty into the alveoli.
  • Alveoli: very thin-walled air sacs located at the tips of the bronchi
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