Chapter 1 cells and kingdoms
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Chapter 1 Cells and kingdoms. Lesson 1 Cells. Organism: A living thing Cell: The smallest unit of living things that carry out the basic processes of life. Animal Cell. Round shape, smaller No cell wall, only a cell membrane

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Chapter 1 cells and kingdoms

Chapter 1Cells and kingdoms

Lesson 1 cells
Lesson 1 Cells

  • Organism: A living thing

  • Cell: The smallest unit of living things that carry out the basic processes of life

Animal cell
Animal Cell

  • Round shape, smaller

  • No cell wall, only a cell membrane

  • Some have many small vacuoles, and others may not have any vacuoles

  • Gets energy from other animal/plant cells

Plant cell
Plant Cell

  • Box-like shape, larger

  • Have an additional outer covering around the outside (cell wall)

  • Usually have one large, central vacuole

  • Makes own food in chloroplasts (green structure, contains chlorophyll)

  • Gets energy from the sunlight

How are cells organized
How are cells organized?

  • Tissue: similar cells working together at the same job, or function

  • Organ: a group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function (example: heart, liver, brain, skin)

  • Organ System: organs that work together to perform a certain function (example: circulatory, digestive, respiratory)




Organ System

Lesson 2 classifying life
Lesson 2 Classifying Life

  • Scientists organize organisms by sorting, or classifying, them into groups according to shared characteristics

  • Kingdoms are grouped by internal form and structure

  • The narrowest (smallest) group an organism can be classified into is a species

Plant kingdom vascular
Plant Kingdom (Vascular)

  • Vessels that run up and down the body

  • Vascular tissue carries water and nutrients from the plants roots up to its leaves; it also moves sugars made in the leaves to other parts of the plant

  • Typically a taller plant

Plant kingdom nonvascular
Plant Kingdom (Nonvascular)

  • Smaller plant

  • Remain small and close to the ground, where they soak up water directly

Have you seen moss or trees that look like this?

Lesson 3 plants
Lesson 3 Plants

  • Stems come in 2 basic forms

    • Soft stems

    • Woody stems

  • Soft stems: not as strong as woody stems; soft, green, can bend (less likely to be damaged in a storm)

  • Woody stems: stronger than soft stems; hard, brown

    (more likely to be damaged in a storm because they can’t bend and they grow tall, which makes it easier to be struck by lightning).

Soft stem

Woody stem

What are stems
What are stems?

  • Phloem: moves sugars that are made in the plant’s leaves to other parts of the plant; transports sugars up from one part of a plant to another

  • Xylem and phloem cells are produced in the cambium, then move inward.

What are leaves
What are leaves?

  • The leaves of a plant have the important function of carrying out photosynthesis, or the process of making food.

What are leaves continued
What are leaves?...continued

  • The top surface of a leaf has a waxy cuticle, a waterproof layer that prevents moisture from evaporating

  • Which could survive longer without water: a thick cuticle or a thin cuticle? How could you test this?

Lesson 4 classifying animals
Lesson 4 Classifying Animals

  • Asymmetrical: cannot be divided into mirror images.

  • Radial Symmetry: All body parts are arranged around a central point; this type of organism has more than one line that divides the organism into 2 mirror images.

Lesson 4 continued
Lesson 4 continued

  • Monotreme: a mammal that lays eggs (examples: duck-billed platypus, spiny anteater)

  • Marsupial:a pouched mammal; give birth to partially developed offspring (examples: kangaroos, koala bears)

  • Placental mammal: the young develop within its mother (examples: humans, dogs, tigers, elephants, whales)

Lesson 5 animal systems
Lesson 5 Animal Systems

  • Skeletal System: bones, tendons, ligaments

  • Muscular system: provides the power to produce movement

  • Digestive system: long tube in which food is broken down into nutrients an organism can use

Digestive System

Muscular System

Skeletal System

Lesson 5 continued
Lesson 5 Continued…

  • Esophagus: a muscular tube that contracts and expands to squeeze chewed food down the stomach

  • Bronchi:small branch-like tubes inside the lungs, which empty into the alveoli.

  • Alveoli: very thin-walled air sacs located at the tips of the bronchi