The endoplasmic reticulum
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The Endoplasmic Reticulum. Produces an enormous variety of molecules Is composed of smooth and rough ER. Nuclear envelope. Ribosomes. Rough ER. Smooth ER. The Endoplasmic Reticulum. After the rough ER synthesizes a molecule it packages the molecule into transport vesicles. 4.

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The Endoplasmic Reticulum

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The endoplasmic reticulum

The Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Produces an enormous variety of molecules

  • Is composed of smooth and rough ER

Nuclear

envelope

Ribosomes

Rough ER

Smooth ER


The endoplasmic reticulum1

The Endoplasmic Reticulum

After the rough ER synthesizes a molecule it packages the molecule into transport vesicles

4

Transport vesicle

buds off

Secretory

protein inside

transport

vesicle

Ribosome

3

Protein

1

Rough ER

2

Polypeptide


The golgi apparatus

The Golgi Apparatus

  • Works in partnership with the ER

  • Refines, stores, and distributes the products of cells

Transport

vesicle

from ER

“Receiving” side of

Golgi apparatus

Golgi apparatus

New vesicle forming

Transport vesicle

from the Golgi

“Shipping” side of

Golgi apparatus

Plasma membrane


Lysosomes

Lysosomes

  • It contains digestive enzymes

  • The enzymes break down macromolecules

  • A lysosome is a membrane-enclosed sac

  • They break down damaged organelles

Lysosome

Digestion

Damaged

organelle

(b) Lysosome breaking down damaged organelle


The endoplasmic reticulum

Vacuoles

Vacuoles are membranous sacs


The endoplasmic reticulum

The Endomembrane System

Rough ER

Transport

vesicle from ER

Golgi

apparatus

Secretory

vesicle from Golgi

Vacuole

Lysosome

Secretory

protein

Plasma membrane


The endoplasmic reticulum

Clicker Question #2

  • 2. Highly phagocytic cells (cells that take part in lots of phagocytosis), like some of your immune cells, need __________ to degrade their phagocytosed particles.

  • A. peroxisomes

  • B. phagosomes

  • C. lysosomes

  • D. cytoskeletal proteins

  • E. ribosomes


The endoplasmic reticulum

Cellular energy conversion

Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, which involves the production of ATP from food molecules

Outer

membrane

Inner

membrane

Cristae

Matrix

Space between

membranes

Figure 4.18


The endoplasmic reticulum

Cytoskeleton

  • ● Provides mechanical support to the cell and maintain its shape


The endoplasmic reticulum

*microtubules

The Cytoskeleton

*microfilaments (actin filaments)

*intermediate filaments


The endoplasmic reticulum

Microfilaments


The endoplasmic reticulum

Microtubules

*centrosome*centrioles


Cilia and flagella

Cilia and Flagella

Cilia and flagella are motile appendages

  • Flagella propel the cell in a whiplike motion

  • Cilia move in a coordinated back-and-forth motion


Cilia and flagella1

“9 + 2”

basal body

Cilia and Flagella


The endoplasmic reticulum

The Cytoskeleton

dynein – motor molecules


Plant cells

Plant Cells

Not in animal cells

Cytoskeleton

Mitochondrion

Central

vacuole

Nucleus

Cell wall

Rough endoplamsicreticulum (ER)

Chloroplast

Ribosomes

Plasma

membrane

Smooth

endoplasmic

reticulum (ER)

Plasmodesmata

Golgi apparatus


The endoplasmic reticulum

Plant Cells

Walls of two adjacent

plant cells

Plant cells are encased by cell walls

Vacuole

Plasmodesmata

(channels between cells)


Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts

Inner and outer

membranes of

envelope

Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to chemical energy

Granum

Space between

membranes

Stroma (fluid in

chloroplast)


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