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MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS ANSALDO FUEL CELLS: Experience & Experimental results. Filippo Parodi /Paolo Capobianco (Ansaldo Fuel Cells S.p.A.) Roma , 14th & 29th March 2007. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS ANSALDO FUEL CELLS EXPERIENCE. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS ANSALDO FUEL CELLS EXPERIENCE.

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molten carbonate fuel cells ansaldo fuel cells experience experimental results

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLSANSALDO FUEL CELLS: Experience & Experimental results

Filippo Parodi /Paolo Capobianco

(Ansaldo Fuel Cells S.p.A.)

Roma , 14th & 29th March 2007

molten carbonate fuel cells ansaldo fuel cells experience

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLSANSALDO FUEL CELLS EXPERIENCE

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLSANSALDO FUEL CELLS EXPERIENCE

Elements of Fuel Cell TheoryEvaluation of the characteristic parametersFlow diagram of a typical MCFC plantANSALDO Fuel Cells experienceExperimental results

Filippo Parodi (Ansaldo Fuel Cells S.p.A. - Italy)

Roma , 14th March 2007

fuel cell is a device

Electrical Energy

-

e

H

-

AFC

OH

100 °C

2

O

H

O

2

2

O

+

H

PEFC

80 °C

2

H

H

O

2

2

CH

OH

O

+

DMFC

H

80 °C

3

2

CO

H

O

2

2

O

+

PAFC

H

200 °C

2

H

H

O

2

2

H

O

=

MCFC

CO

650 °C

2

2

H

O

3

CO

2

2

H

SOFC

=

O

1000 °C

2

O

2

H

O

2

Oxygen

Air

Fuel

H2

Cathode

Anode

Electrolyte

FUEL CELL IS A DEVICE ...

DIRECTLY TRANSFORMS THE CHEMICAL ENERGY OF THE FUEL INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY BY ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTIONS

slide4

CO2, NOx, SOx,

particulate, ash

Heat losses

Mechanical losses

THERMAL TO MECHANIC CONVERSION

MECHANIC TO ELECTRICAL CONVERSION

COMBUSTION

ELECTRIC

ENERGY

Steam/Gas Turbine

Alternator

CO2

H2O

FUEL

H2

FUEL PROCESSING

FUEL CELL

ELECTRIC

ENERGY

OXYGEN

HEAT

FUEL CELLS BASED vs. CONVENTIONAL

ENERGY PRODUCTION PROCESS

FUEL

OXYGEN

slide5

Fuel Cells based vs. conventional power systems

  • Direct energy conversion (no combustion)
    • Less conversion steps / Lower energy losses
    • Higher efficiency
  • Environmental benefit
    • No moving parts in the energy converter, Low maintenance , Low noise
    • Low exhaust emissions,
  • Modularity
    • Modular installations to match load and increase reliability
    • Size flexibility
    • Good performance at off-design load operation
  • Fuel flexibility
    • hydrogen, Natural Gas, biogas, biomass gasification, landfill gas, reformed heavy fuels
  • Possibility of remote/unattended operation
afco selects as most promising fc technology
AFCo selects as most promising FC technology:

MCFC

Operating temperature about 650°C

No noble metal catalysts are used into the stack

Uses carbon monoxide as fuel and carbon dioxide as cathode reactant

Allows much simpler reforming section

Allows coupling to gas turbine hybrid cycles (higher efficiencies)

Plants up to 1- 2 MW size, for stationary applications, demonstrated in USA & Japan

ansaldo fuel cells labs mcfc single cells
Ansaldo Fuel Cells Labs MCFC single cells

Electrochemical Reactions:

CO2 + ½ O2 +2e- CO3- - cathode

H2 + CO3- - H2O + CO2 + 2e- anode

----------------------------------------------------

H2 + ½ O2 H2O overall reaction

Materials:

anode: Ni / Cr

cathode: Li x Ni 1-x O

matrix: LiAlO2

electrolyte: K2CO3 e Li2CO3

mcfc stacks

To obtain the required electrical voltage and power, many cells are connected in series to build the MCFC Stack

MCFC STACKS

single cell voltage= 0.6 - 1 V

current = up to 1000A DC

mcfc stack components and manufacturing
MCFC stack components and manufacturing
  • These aspects will be shown on the next lesson

Working principles of Fuel CellsMCFC technologyKey materials and componentsTechnological developmentLAB level tests

29/03/07

Paolo Capobianco

Ansaldo Fuel Cells S.p.A.

Responsible for laboratories

elements of fuel cell theory c haracteristic parameters
Elements of Fuel Cell theory Characteristic parameters
  • Reversible cell potential
    • temperature effects
    • operating pressure effects
    • reversible cell potential calculation
  • cell voltage out of reversibility
    • polarisation effects: activation, ohmic, concentration
    • experimental data on MCFC
    • thermal management and operating ranges
  • MCFC based power plants
    • fuel reforming + MCFC
    • mass balance
    • performance
    • experimental results
reversible cell potential

RL

e-

-

+

A

C

H+

H2

O2

reversible cell potential
  • The Fuel Cell is a device that directly transforms chemical energy of the fuel into electric energy by mean of electrochemical reactions.

From the thermodynamic point of view:

  • From the thermodynamic point of view:
  • at constant pressure:
  • 1st Principle of Thermodynamics:
  • for reversible transformations:
  • for electro-chemical reactions
elements of fuel cell theory c haracteristic parameters1
Elements of Fuel Cell theory Characteristic parameters
  • Reversible cell potential
    • temperature effects
    • operating pressure effects
    • reversible cell potential calculation
  • cell voltage out of reversibility
    • polarisation effects: activation, ohmic, concentration
    • experimental data on MCFC
    • thermal management and operating ranges
  • MCFC based power plants
    • fuel reforming + MCFC
    • mass balance
    • performance
    • experimental results
cell voltage on load

fuel

oxidant

RL

ne-

I

-

+

A

C

H+

combustibile

ossidante

cell voltage on load
out of reversibility conditions cell voltage on load
out of reversibility conditions cell voltage on load

1.5

1.4

Erev-OCV: parasitical reactions

1.3

Erev

OCV-A: polarization for activation

1.2

OCV

1.1

A-B: linear voltage drop - ohmic behaviour

1

B-C: polarization for concentration

0.9

A

0.8

V

0.7

B

0.6

0.5

C

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

i

elements of fuel cell theory c haracteristic parameters2
Elements of Fuel Cell theory Characteristic parameters
  • Reversible cell potential
    • temperature effects
    • operating pressure effects
    • reversible cell potential calculation
  • cell voltage out of reversibility
    • polarisation effects: activation, ohmic, concentration
    • experimental data on MCFC
    • thermal management and operating ranges
  • MCFC based power plants
    • fuel reforming + MCFC
    • mass balance
    • performance
    • experimental results
experimental results on a mcfc stack
Experimental results on a MCFC stack

By courtesy of Ansaldo Fuel Cells SpA

Voltage vs current characteristic curve is linear: V = Erev - Rpol • I

Negligible activation and parasitic voltage loss

High current density design condition is possible

concentration effects experimental results on mcfc single cell
Concentration effectsexperimental results on MCFC single cell

can be measured only for gas compositions very poor in H2

or

at very high current densities

good agreement with simulated values

By courtesy of Ansaldo Fuel Cells SpA

elements of fuel cell theory c haracteristic parameters3
Elements of Fuel Cell theory Characteristic parameters
  • Reversible cell potential
    • temperature effects
    • operating pressure effects
    • reversible cell potential calculation
  • cell voltage out of reversibility
    • polarisation effects: activation, ohmic, concentration
    • experimental data on MCFC
    • thermal management and operating ranges
  • MCFC based power plants
    • fuel reforming + MCFC
    • mass balance
    • performance
    • experimental results
thermal management on mcfc results from detailed simulation code
Thermalmanagement on MCFC results from detailed simulation code (*)

exothermal electrochemical reaction

power generation produces heat excess in the cell

thermal management need to avoid high temperature damaging of components

high gas flow rate is used to cool down the stack

(*) By courtesy of Ansaldo Fuel Cells SpA

and PERT group of Genoa University

thermal management on real mcfc
Thermal management on real MCFC

STACK MCFC - experimental data

temperature distribution on the cell plane

700-710

690-700

680-690

670-680

660-670

650-660

640-650

630-640

620-630

610-620

600-610

By courtesy of Ansaldo Fuel Cells SpA

fuel cells plant concept
Fuel Cells Plant Concept

to accomplish with proper operating ranges the fuel cell need of a Balance of Plant tailored on the application

molten carbonate fuel cells ansaldo fuel cells experience1
MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLSANSALDO FUEL CELLS EXPERIENCE

Elements of Fuel Cell Theory Evaluation of the characteristic parameters Flow diagram of a typical MCFC plant ANSALDO Fuel Cells experience Experimental results

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