Lauren christian endowed lecture egbert f knol
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Peri-natal survival of piglets understanding and genetics. Lauren Christian Endowed Lecture Egbert F. Knol. Road map. Challenge Our business is efficient pork production Our responsibility is to maintain animal integrity Pork chain mortality is out of bounds in many situations

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Lauren Christian Endowed Lecture Egbert F. Knol

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Lauren christian endowed lecture egbert f knol

Peri-natal survival of piglets

understanding and genetics

Lauren Christian Endowed Lecture

Egbert F. Knol


Road map

Road map

Challenge

  • Our business is efficient pork production

  • Our responsibility is to maintain animal integrity

  • Pork chain mortality is out of bounds in many situations

    Peri-natal survival:

  • Basics

  • Genetics

  • Piglet side: vitality

  • Nurse sow side: mothering ability

    Genomics will help

    Mission for all of us


Challenge

Challenge


Our business

Our business

FARROW

FINISH

PORK

FEED


Efficiency

Efficiency

FARROW

FINISH

PORK

FEED

PORK

FE =-----------

FEED


Losses on the way

Losses on the way

FARROW FINISH

FEED

PORK

Losses drain efficiency; feed is invested, but not harvested


Good 12 weaned

GOOD: 12 weaned

FARROW FINISH

Gestation lactation nursery finishing

LOSSES

30 ova shed

15 piglets born

1 stillborn

14.3% PWM

2% nursery

5% sow mortality3% finishing

76% of total born reaches plant


Good 12 weaned1

GOOD: 12 weaned

FARROW FINISH

Gestation lactation nursery finishing

LOSSES

30 ova shed

15 piglets born

Crowding? Selection for increased litter size overdone?

(Canada, university of Alberta, Foxcroft et al.)


Good 12 weaned2

GOOD: 12 weaned

FARROW FINISH

Gestation lactation nursery finishing

LOSSES

30 ova shed

15 piglets born

1 stillborn

14.3% PWM

2% nursery

20% peri-natal mortality in a good situation


Good 12 weaned3

GOOD: 12 weaned

FARROW FINISH

Gestation lactation nursery finishing

 

farrowing survival

preweaning survival

Correlated responses backward and forward


Added challenge

Added challenge

Hours spent per piglet in a farrowing unit

Hours

Year


Basics

Basics


Modeling of test farm

Modeling of test farm

Frequency/% survival

Weight (kg)

Bell curve is birth weight distribution

S – curve is Survival curve


Increasing birth weight

Increasing birth weight


Reducing variation

Reducing variation


Increasing survival

Increasing survival


Duroc black against pietrain

Duroc (black) against Pietrain


Sire differences

Sire differences

Pre-weaning survival

>350 offspring each

2 lbs

4 lbs


Genetics of survival

Genetics of survival


Death whom to blame

Death: whom to blame?

Genes of the piglet?

Genes of the sow?

Genes of the foster?


Genetic models

Genetic models

Classic approach

  • Litter mortality = HYS + sow (+ error)

  • Litter survival = HYS + service sire + sow

    Improved (still recording at litter level)

  • Litter survival = HYS + service sire + sow

    Our perception

  • Piglet survival = HYS + f(BW) + animal + dam + foster

  • Animal = piglet vitality,

  • Dam = uterine quality and

  • Foster = mothering ability


Lauren christian endowed lecture egbert f knol

Piglet weighing

> 500,000 piglets per per year


Validation 100 low against 100 high ebv litters

Validation: 100 low against 100 high EBV litters


Validation 100 low against 100 high ebv litters1

Validation: 100 low against 100 high EBV litters


Validation 100 low against 100 high ebv litters2

Validation: 100 low against 100 high EBV litters


Piglet vitality

Piglet vitality

The animal effect from the model


Why does it work

Why does it work?

  • 25 high EBV gilts mated to high EBV boars

  • 25 low low

  • All 50 caesarian sectioned 2 days before farrowing, placentae weighed

  • All 650 piglets fully dissected

  • Organs weighed, length of intestinal tract, blood parameters etc. etc.

  • More vital: heavier livers, more glycogen (P=0.04)


Blue high ebv litters

2000

1600

1200

Weight piglet

800

400

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Weight placenta

Blue: high EBV litters

Jascha Leenhouwers en Tette van der Lende


High ebv litters more cortisol

High EBV littersmore cortisol

Jascha Leenhouwers, JAS 2002


Stronger piglets not heavier

Stronger piglets, not heavier!


Mothering ability

Mothering ability

Foster effect from the model


What do we like in a sow

What do we LIKE in a sow

  • Quiet

  • Attentive

  • Enough teats

  • Quality of teats

  • Enough milk

  • Uniformity at birth and at weaning

  • Maintenance of body condition

  • ....

Lots of grad students needed…

Or: use EBV for mothering ability


1 visual scan sampling

1. Visual scan sampling

  • 4 hours walking through farrowing rooms

  • Visually ‘Scanning’ each sow every 5 minutes

  • 5 observation days (days -2, 0, 7, 14)

  • 80 sows, 150 traits


Position

Position


Behaviour

Behaviour


2 open field test

2. Open field test


3 aggression test

3. Aggression test


Lauren christian endowed lecture egbert f knol

4. Questionnaire


Results 1 scan sampling

Results: 1. Scan sampling

Sows with high EBV-MA:

  • Less changes of posture

  • Less activity

  • Less in sitting position


Results 2 open field test

Results: 2. Open field test

Sows with high EBV-MA:

  • More exploring behaviour in open field


Results 3 aggression test

Results: 3. Aggression test

Sows with high EBV-MA:

  • More lying laterally

  • More vocalisation

  • Less aggression (biting plush piglet)!!!


Results 4 questionnaire

Results 4. Questionnaire


Conclusion

Conclusion

Statistical model results in what we want:

  • Quiet

  • Attentive

  • Enough teats

  • Quality of teats

  • Uniformity at birth and at weaning

    No need for grad students here


Implementation in breeding program

Implementation in breeding program


Ebv estimation

EBV estimation

4 million piglets weighed

1.2 million sows

2 million piglets with underline count


Validation

Validation

1 take out 10,000 records

2 estimate breeding values on the remaining data

3 predict the 10,000

4 expected b-value should be 1.00


General conclusions

General conclusions

  • Survival: management = selection

  • Survival selection: hard work, but feasible

  • Most genetic companies select, be it with different tools

  • Faster than economic progress should be an option

  • Longer gestation, lower variation in bw, but not higher bw

Next table closer than you might expect


Labour per piglet produced

Labour per piglet produced


Miranda s slide quoted by foxcroft in banff

Miranda’s slide, quoted by Foxcroft in Banff


Validation of this graph 2 extreme sows

Validation of this graph: 2 extreme sows


Andreia s slide on variation

Andreia’s slide on variation


Birth weights on farms

Birth weights on farms


Lauren christian endowed lecture egbert f knol

2004-2011: 1.1 pig extra * 50 g= 55 g; trend is almost double


Resultaten onderzoek fase 1

Resultaten onderzoek fase 1


Seizoensinvloeden op geboortegewicht

Seizoensinvloeden op geboortegewicht

65 gram

56


Invloed pariteit op geboortegewicht

Invloed pariteit op geboortegewicht


Invloed pariteit op bigoverleving

Invloed pariteit op bigoverleving


Interesting remarks

Interesting remarks

  • Sows housed in groups have piglets with heavier birth weights


Lauren christian endowed lecture egbert f knol

Group housing in gestation

Corrected mean:

Raw data:


Thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention


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