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Jean-Paul Sartre. Born 1905 From France Worked with the French Resistance in World War II Wrote novels, short stories, and plays Became a Marxist Turned down Nobel Prize (1964) Died 1980. Sartre’s Contributions. Popularized existentialism

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Jean paul sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre

  • Born 1905

  • From France

  • Worked with the French Resistance in World War II

  • Wrote novels, short stories, and plays

  • Became a Marxist

  • Turned down Nobel Prize (1964)

  • Died 1980


Sartre s contributions
Sartre’s Contributions

  • Popularized existentialism

  • Argued for absolute freedom and responsibility for human beings

  • Author of many memorable quotations and examples

    • “Man is a useless passion”

    • “Hell is other people”



Atheist existentialism
Atheist Existentialism

  • Denies the existence of God

  • If there is no God, there is at least one kind of creature, the human being, in whom existence precedes essence

  • There is no human nature, because there is no God to conceive of it: man is only what he wills himself to be


Subjectivity
Subjectivity

  • The starting point for humans is subjective because humans make themselves what they are

  • Making ourselves what we are leaves us responsible for our own actions

  • Humans are responsible not only for themselves, but for all humanity, since we “create an image of man as we think he ought to be”

  • We always choose the good, which is good for all


Forlornness
Forlornness

  • Heidegger described humans as forlorn because we must face the consequences of the non-existence of God

  • It is distressing because there is no ultimate source of values if God does not exist

  • Dostoyevsky: If God does not exist, everything is permitted


Reality alone counts
Reality Alone Counts

  • An person is of a certain kind (e.g., writer) only insofar as he engages in that activity

  • What a person hopes or wishes to be does not matter; only the produced realities do

  • In assessing a person, we must take all his activities into account

  • For man is the sum of his undertakings


Optimistic toughness
Optimistic Toughness

  • Existentialists write of people with character flaws

  • They do not attribute these to circumstances or heredity, but to free choices

  • The existentialist keeps open the possibility of change in anyone in any circumstance


Subjectivity again
Subjectivity Again

  • The only firm beginning is “I think; therefore, I exist”

  • Everything else is mere probability

  • This prevents man from being reduced to an object


Universality
Universality

  • There is a universal human condition: mortal being in the world

  • This is objective, and the situation of any human can be understood

  • But it is subjective, as the human condition is always being built through individual human choices


The novel defined

Extended work of fiction written

in prose; Foer’s novel includes:

detective story

humor writing

first-person testimonials

epistles (letters)

photographs and concludes with a reversible flip-book

Walter Kirn on Foer’s work: “Everything is Included” like an “overstuffed fortune cookie”

The Novel (Defined)


Literary terms
Literary Terms

  • Stream of Consciousness: the uninterrupted flow of impressions and perceptions, thoughts, and feelings

  • Especially popular among the Modernist writers post-WWI (i.e. Woolf, Joyce and Faulkner)

  • This technique mingles memories, feelings, and seemingly random associations

  • Also termed free indirect discourse

  • Technique is reflective of human mind


Synonyms for coming of age
Synonyms for “coming of age”

  • Aging

  • Growth (esp. “growing up”)

  • Development

  • Maturation

  • Initiation



Themes
Themes

  • Growth after loss

  • Finding meaning and one’s place in the world

  • The human experience- we all have an unspoken human connection

  • Father-son relationships

  • Mortality-life and death


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