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UK Approach to National Security. 19 Jan 11. Content. Our approach National Security Strategy Strategic Defence and Security Review - SDSR. Approach. Defence as part of National Security Afghanistan Trident Value for Money Study Defence Reform Unit Regular Reviews.

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Presentation Transcript

Content

  • Our approach

  • National Security Strategy

  • Strategic Defence and Security Review - SDSR


Approach

  • Defence as part of National Security

  • Afghanistan

  • Trident Value for Money Study

  • Defence Reform Unit

  • Regular Reviews


National Security Strategy

  • Strategic Context

  • Britain’s Distinctive Role

  • National Security Risk Assessment

  • Adaptable Britain

  • National Security Tasks & Planning Guidelines


National Security Strategy

  • Strategic Context

    • Terrorism - international and NI-related

    • Changing character of conflict

    • Increasingly multi-polar and interconnected

    • Scientific and technological innovation

    • Social and demographic trends

    • Climate change and natural resources


National Security Strategy

  • Britain’s Distinctive Role

    • Connected and at the heart of many global networks

    • Role in international affairs

    • Enlightened national self-interest

    • Openness exposes us to risks and opportunities

    • Our response - 2 strategic objectives:

      • A secure and resilient UK

      • Shaping a stable world


National Security Strategy

  • National Security Risk Assessment

    • Domestic and overseas; 5 and 20 years

    • Likelihood and impact

    • Vulnerability

    • Tier 1 risks:

      • Cyber

      • International military crisis

      • International terrorism

      • Major accident or natural hazard

-

-

Impact

Likelihood


National Security Strategy

  • Adaptable Britain

    • Respond to highest priority risks

    • Respond to low probability but very high impact risks

    • Focus on upstream activity

    • Retain a broad spectrum of security and defence capabilities

    • Strengthen relationships with key allies

    • Coordinate and integrate whole of Government response


National Security Strategy

  • National Security Tasks & Planning Guidelines

    • Identify and monitor risks and opportunities;

    • Tackle the causes of instability;

    • Exert influence;

    • Enforce domestic law and strengthen international norms;

    • Protect the UK and our interests at home, at our border, and internationally;

    • Help resolve conflicts and contribute to stability. Where necessary, intervene overseas;

    • Provide resilience;

    • Work in alliances and partnerships.


SDSR

  • Process

  • Principles

  • Military Tasks

  • Planning Assumptions

  • Force Structure

  • Decisions


SDSR Process

Phase 1 - Policy Baseline

Policy and Capability Studies

Policy and Capability Studies

Phase 2 - Policy and Capability Studies

Phase 3 - Force Testing

Phase 4 - Synthesis and Costing

Phase 5 - Decision and Presentation

Publication

Phase 6 - Implementation


SDSR Wider Process

Feb 10

mid-08

Global Strategic Trends

Feb 10

Feb 09

Future Character of Conflict

Jul 09

Feb 10

Green Paper

Phase 1 - Policy Baseline

Phase 2 - Policy and Capability Studies

Policy and Capability Studies

Policy and Capability Studies

Phase 3 - Force Testing

Phase 4 - Synthesis and Costing

Phase 5 - Decision and Presentation

Publication

Phase 6 - Implementation


Principles

  • Use of Armed Forces

  • National interest

  • Upstream activity

  • Flexibility


Military Tasks

  • Providing strategic intelligence

  • Providing nuclear deterrence

  • Defending the UK and its Overseas Territories

  • Supporting civil emergency organisations in times of crisis

  • Providing a Defence contribution to UK influence

  • Defending our interests by projecting power strategically and through expeditionary interventions

  • Providing security for stabilisation


Developing the Policy Response

Matching Resource to Aspiration

Increasing

Levels of

Ambition

Homeland

Influence

Intervention

Stabilisation

Policy Choices

Prioritise Capabilities and shape the force structure to achieve affordability


Defence Planning Assumptions

The Armed Forces in the future will be sized and shaped to conduct:

• an enduring stabilisation operation at around brigade level (up to 6,500 personnel) with maritime and air support as required, while also conducting:

• one non-enduring complex intervention (up to 2,000 personnel), and

• one non-enduring simple intervention (up to 1,000 personnel);

OR alternatively:

• three non-enduring operations if we were not already engaged in an enduring operation;

OR:

• for a limited time, and with sufficient warning, committing all our effort to a one-off intervention of up to three brigades, with maritime and air support (around 30,000, two-thirds of the force deployed to Iraq in 2003).



Royal Navy

  • Maritime defence of the UK and Overseas Territories

  • Nuclear Continuous at Sea Deterrence (CASD)

  • Credible and capable presence in priority regions

  • Strike – carrier strike and submarine (TLAM)

    Future Force 2020

  • Single operational carrier; 2nd at extended readiness

  • 4 Vanguard SSBN and 7 Astute SSN submarines

  • 19 Destroyers/Frigates

  • 14 MCMV plus logistic support and RORO ferries

  • 3 Commando Brigade and Commando Helicopter Force Merlins

  • c30,000 by 2015; 29,000 by 2020


Royal Navy

Reductions

  • Decommission HMS Ark Royal

  • Decommission HMS Illustrious

  • Decommission 4 frigates and a Bay-class amphibious support ship

  • Place an amphibious landing ship (HMS Albion or Bulwark) at extended readiness


Army

  • Standing commitments eg bomb disposal and Falklands

  • Light specialist forces for short interventions

  • Multi-role forces for more complex interventions or enduring stabilisation operations

  • The ability to command coalitions

    Future Force 2020

  • 5 x multi-role brigades and 16 Air Assault Brigade

  • Approx 1/3 less heavy armour; but buying FRES Specialist and Utility Variants

  • “Best Effort” deployment of 3 brigades

  • c95,000 by 2015; 94,000 by 2020


Army

Reductions

  • Challenger 2 tanks by around 40%

  • AS90 heavy artillery by around 35%

  • One deployable brigade (as we restructure to 5 multi-role brigades)

  • Significantly reduce non-deployable regional command structure

  • Rationalise deployable headquarters


Royal Air Force

  • Air defence of the UK, Falklands and deployed forces

  • Credible and capable combat air presence

  • Expeditionary combat air incl strategic and tactical airlift

  • ISTAR and RAF Regiment ground units

    Future Force 2020

  • Typhoon and JSF (Carrier Variant - jointly operated by RN & RAF)

  • C17, A400M, Airbus A330 transport/tanker

  • Chinook, Puma, Merlin

  • E3D Sentry, Rivet Joint, UAVs

  • c33,000 by 2015; 31,500 by 2020


Royal Air Force

Reductions

  • Remove Joint Force Harrier (RN/RAF) in 2011

  • Do not bring the Nimrod MRA4 into service

  • Reduce VC-10 to refuelling role, and aim to withdraw by 2013

  • Remove 3 variants of Tristar from 2013

  • Withdraw C130J by 2022

  • Withdraw Sentinel once it is no longer required in Afghanistan


Strategic Nuclear Deterrent

  • Commitment to continuous at sea submarine-based deterrent

  • 1st new submarine in 2028; decision needed 2016

  • 8 missile tubes (vice 12)

  • 40 warheads per submarine (vice 48)

  • No more than 180 warheads (vice 225); decision on replacement needed 2019

  • £3 Bn cost reduction over 10 years


Special Forces

  • Contribute to a wide range of intervention and stabilisation operations, as well as other commitments

  • Maintain regular SF front line units

  • Significantly enhance support capabilities


Cyber

  • New UK Defence Cyber Operations Group

    • Cyber operations will be conducted in parallel with more conventional actions in the maritime, land and air domains

    • Mainstream cyber throughout Defence activities

    • A cadre of experts to secure our own networks and develop new capabilities

    • Integrated planning, training and exercises

    • Close relationships across Government, with Allies and with industry


Civil Service

  • Decrease by 25,000 to 60,000 by 2015

    • Natural turnover

    • Limited external recruitment

    • Early release programme

    • Consultation with Trades Unions


Other

  • Armed Forces Covenant

  • Defence Estate



Alliances & Partnerships

  • New models of bilateral cooperation:

    • Greater reliance on capability, role sharing and equipment collaboration with close Allies

    • Reinforced relationship with US

    • Intensified cooperation with France

    • Greater cooperation with regional partners to shared security concerns

  • Enhance effectiveness of multilateral cooperation:

    • UN - improve effectiveness, conflict prevention focus, coordination with NATO/EU and cyber cooperation;

    • NATO reform - support Strategic Concept, NATO reform, EU/NATO cooperation

    • EU - continue enlargement; focus resources on support to (civilian and military) missions.


Implementation

  • Strategy for Defence

  • Technical Instruction

  • Defence Strategic Direction

  • Defence Industrial Strategy

  • Review of Reserves


SDSR Themes

  • Uncertainty: adaptability; readiness

  • Future Conflict: intelligence; precision; mobility

  • Independence: UK; Overseas Territories

  • Multilateralism: risk management

  • Combat Focused: reductions in non-front line areas

  • Affordability



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