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Institute of. IID. Innovative. Design. detergents. action. selective action. soil. textile. Main Function: Detach Soil from Fabric. D etergents must be selective. Institute of. IID. Innovative. Design. detergents. Detachment Force. Bonding Force.

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Main function detach soil from fabric

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

detergents

action

selective action

soil

textile

Main Function: Detach Soil from Fabric

Detergents must be selective


Detachment force must be greater than the bonding force

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

detergents

Detachment Force

Bonding Force

Detachment Force Must be Greater than the Bonding Force

Main Function

textile


Perfume

Enzymes

Bleach

Surfactants

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

detergents

E

E

B

P

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

H2O

textile

Enzymes

Surfactants


Perfume

Enzymes

Bleach

Surfactants

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

E

B

B

P

P

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

textile

Perfume

Bleach


Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

S

S

textile


Surfactants

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

To remove soil from fabric

SurfActant

SurfActant

SurfActants

Harmful

functions

  • Transfer dye

  • Place Surfactant complexes in fabric matrix

  • Place "Surfactant + Soil" complexes in fabric matrix

  • Form complexes with hardness ions Ca2+, Mg2+

  • Deactivate enzymes

  • Form suds


Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

ENZYMES

ENZYMES

To destroy soil

Enzymes

Harmful

functions

  • Destroy fabric

  • Develop allergic response


Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

BLEACH

Bleach

To oxidize soil

Harmful

functions

  • Destroy fabric

  • Destroy rubber parts of machine

  • Cause corrosion of steel parts of machine


Antiresorber

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

To form hydrophylic surface on fabric

Antiresorber

Harmful

functions

Antiresorber

  • Form compound with fabric that does not destroy in rinsing

  • Soil fabric (with time, in deposition)


Builders

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

Builders

Harmful

functions

Builders

To soften fabric (prevent hydrogen bonds from forming between fabric fibers in washing and drying processes)

  • Soil fabric (with time, in deposition)

  • Suppress activity of Brightener


Water

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

Water

Harmful

functions

Water

  • To dissolve detergent components

  • To transport surfactant molecules to “soil - water” interface

  • To wash soil away from fabric

  • To transport soil from machine

  • To remove surfactant from fabric

  • Remove dye from fabric

  • Add hardness ions into washing solution

  • Cause corrosion of steel parts of machine

  • Penetrate in fabric fibers in swelling

  • Form suds


Hardness ions ca 2 mg 2

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

Ca2+

Mg2+

Water

Harmful

functions

Hardness ions (Ca2+, Mg2+)

We are water’s

friends !

  • Form complexes with surfactant

  • Form compounds with fatty acids

  • Form compounds with central atoms

  • Deposit on clays


Integral drawbacks of detergents impeding their further advance

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

detergents

1. The force

of action

of surfactant

on soil

has long

reached

its limit.

INTEGRAL DRAWBACKS OF DETERGENTS IMPEDING THEIR FURTHER ADVANCE

Why?


Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

  • Quantum-mechanical

  • interactions underlying

  • the “hydrophily-

  • hydrophoby”effect

  • are completely

  • exhausted denying

  • further increase of

  • physical-chemical

  • properties of surfactants.

detergents


Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

SurfActant

detergents

2. Use of surfactants generates

a need to use water as a solvent

and necessitates subsequent rinsing and

drying for a long time,

As a result the dies are washed out,

fibers are damaged and

fabric is deformed.


Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

BLEACH

BLEACH

ENZYMES

ENZYMES

detergents

This makes sense until the

sum of positive properties

gained is larger than the sum

of payment- undesirable effects.

Current ratio is as follows:

positive functions - 28%,

negative - 55%, auxiliary - 17%

(these functions are

useless in washing)

Attempts to improve the effect of surfactants (application of bleach, enzymes) have brought into being detergents of modern complicated formulations.

Each new component added slightly improved the main function, but at the same time brought about new undesirable effects.

To suppress these effects new components were added, and so on. Can this go on to infinity?


Avenue to increase main function

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

Variation of

composition

of builders

Builders - the same

New principles of

Washing/cleaning

Change physical-

chemical principle of

detachment of soil

separate feed of builders

under program

Replace

a part of components for new

Builders for new

solvents,

Physical fields

microbiology

Avenue to increase Main function

Degree of

novelty

To introduce

new

elements with

enlarged

useful

function

To introduce

new

elements with

enlarged

useful

function

To separate

contradictory

properties

In time and

space

To eliminate

Sources of

harmful

functions

To enhance

useful

functions

of remaining

builders

Principle

of solution

Result

NEW

PROCESSES

IMPROVEMENT OF PROCESS


Conclusions

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

  • 1. Patent studies of the recent 25 years

  • have demonstrated the field of detergents

  • to have to parallel interrelated processes:

CONCLUSIONS

Decreasing functional surplus in each new formulation as compared to the formulations of the 70s;

in recent 3-5 years the formulations differ only in names of substances, their functional significance being almost identical.

  • Increasing number of patented formulations

  • indicative of the aspiration of manufacturers

  • to expand business, develop new trade marks;


Conclusions1

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

CONCLUSIONS

Interrelation of these processes is obvious (TIPS has found it in numerous engineering systems): the less valuable is the heuristic solution obtained, the higher is the wish to compensate the quality of patents by their quantity. TIPS calls this period in the life of a system “aging of the system”. This suggests a necessity to pass over to fundamentally novel solutions.


Conclusions2

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

  • 2. Cooperation with washing machine manufacturers to increase the synergism of combined effect of mechanical and chemical factors is not beneficial for P&G - improved mechanical factor will have good effect on every detergent.

CONCLUSIONS

Only a slight probability exists that the mechanical factor

can be changed so and such new components for detergents

can be added that their sum will bring forth a pronounced jump

in synergism, In this case the changes in the washing machine

must be determined by a certain “X” component that will need

a different method of activation to reveal its effect.

Thus, first it is necessary to find this

“X” component and next consider versions

of changes in mechanical activation.


Conclusions3

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

  • 3. P&G is interested to manufacture a chemical product for household washing, so, major efforts should be focused to find new detergent formulations.

CONCLUSIONS


Conclusions4

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

4. A “fundamentally novel solution” for detergents means

to abandon components that impair the process

(deteriorate other components, deteriorate fabric).

Components that perform corrective

and auxiliary functions have to be abandoned.

New components to make improve

detachment of soil form fabric must be added

CONCLUSIONS


Conclusions5

Institute of

IID

Innovative

Design

5. Preliminaryanalysis demonstrates that:

CONCLUSIONS

A) Along with surfactants it is required to use other substances detaching soil

(e, g, triple systems “water-intermediate solvent-organic solvent”);

B) Bleach as a substance devoid of selective action has to be excluded from the formulation or its action must be strictly selective;

C) Enzyme types must be more numerous to enlarge the range of their action on

soil types, to meet economic requirements their effect must be strictly selective;

D) The washing process must use little water with higher concentration of acting

components and shorter (to prevent fibers from swelling);

limit low-water process is to steam out the fabric components with previously deposited on it (steam fed through a nozzle can be a source of ultra-mega-hypersound, at this);

E) Movement of washing liquid through fabric must be unilateral to exclude recurrent deposition of soil (soil held by filter in the circulation loop).


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