Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS EGYPT PART 1: FLOODS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . EGYPT. POLITICAL MAP OF EGYPT (Note: Aswan).

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS EGYPT PART 1: FLOODS

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Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSEGYPTPART 1: FLOODS

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 


Egypt

EGYPT


Political map of egypt note aswan

POLITICAL MAP OF EGYPT (Note: Aswan)


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

Egypt has frequent earthquakes, floods, flash floods and landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

NATURAL HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN EGYPT

FLOODS

GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

STORMS

EARTHQUAKES

HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT

DUST STORMS

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE


Natural phenomena that cause disasters

Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters

Planet Earth’s atmospheric-hydrospheric-lithospheric interactions create situations favorable for FLOODS


The nile river

THE NILE RIVER


The nile s fertile delta

THE NILE’S FERTILE DELTA


Flood prone communities along the nile

FLOOD-PRONE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NILE


The nile river1

THE NILE RIVER

  • The ancient Egyptians thought of the annual floods as the annual coming of the god Hapi.

  • They did not realize that the annual flood cycle happened after rainfall in the mountains to the south swelled the tributaries and small rivers that form the northward-flowing Nile River.


Flooding is a part of the egyptian culture

FLOODING IS A PART OF THE EGYPTIAN CULTURE

  • The annual flooding of the Nile River (Arabic: عيد وفاء النيل‎), a natural cycle, has been a part of Egyptian culture since ancient times.

  • It is celebrated annually as a holiday (known as Wafaa El-Nil) for two weeks starting August 15.


The annual rythmn of life along the nile

THE ANNUAL RYTHMN OF LIFE ALONG THE NILE


The annual flood cycle

THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE

  • The first indications of the rise of the Nile River and the beginning of the flood cycle are typically seen as early as the beginning of June.

  • A steady increase in water level occurs until the middle of July.

  • The Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, when the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks, sometimes a little less. In October it rises again, and reaches its highest level. From this period it begins to subside, and though it rises yet once more and reaches occasionally its former highest point, it sinks steadily until the month of June when it is again at its lowest level


The annual flood cycle continued

THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued)

  • The water level in the Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, then the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks.

  • In October the water rises again and reaches its highest level.


The annual flood cycle continued1

THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE (Continued)

  • From October to June, the water level in the Nile continues to subside until it once again reaches its lowest level in June.


Elements of risk and disaster

ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

HAZARDS

EXPOSURE

VULNERABILITY

LOCATION

ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK

RISK


Flood hazards aka potential disaster agents

FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS)

  • TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED WITHIN THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED NORMALLY IN THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLE

  • EROSION

  • SCOUR

  • MUDFLOWS


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

A DISASTER CAN HAPPENWHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF A FLOOD INTERACT WITH EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

CAUSES OF RISK

LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN

INUNDATION

INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER

FLOODS

WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)

CASE HISTORIES

EROSION AND MUDFLOWS

CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

The annual flood cycle of the Nile River has made the difference between living and dying for thousands of years in Egypt.


The nile as a source of life

THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF LIFE

  • The annual floods of the Nile River brought nutrient-rich silt from the mountains to the Nile delta, which produced bountiful crops.


About the right amount of water

ABOUT THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF WATER


The nile as a source of death

THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF DEATH

  • When the water levels in the Nile River are too high, flooding prevents deposition of the nutrient-rich silt in the Nile delta, reducing agricultural output.

  • When water levels are too low for flooding, the result is low agricultural output and possible starvation.


Too much water

TOO MUCH WATER


A disaster is

A DISASTER is ---

--- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help  when three continuums: 1)  people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., floods, earthquakes,…) intersect at a point in space and time.


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

Disasters are caused by single- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.


The reasons are

THE REASONS ARE . . .

  • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST.


The reasons are1

THE REASONS ARE . . .

  • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.


The reasons are2

THE REASONS ARE . . .

  • The community has NODISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.


The reasons are3

THE REASONS ARE . . .

  • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.


The reasons are4

THE REASONS ARE . . .

  • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.


Floods in egypt are inevitable and damaging

FLOODS IN EGYPT ARE INEVITABLE AND DAMAGING

  • ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT.


The alternative to a flood disaster is flood disaster resilience

THE ALTERNATIVE TO A FLOOD DISASTER ISFLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

  • FLOOD HAZARDS

  • INVENTORY

  • VULNERABILITY

  • LOCATION

  • PREPAREDNESS

  • PROTECTION

  • FORECASTS/SCENARIOS

  • EMERGENCY RESPONSE

  • RECOVERY and

  • RECONSTRUCTION

FL\OOD RISK

POLICY OPTIONS

ACCEPTABLE RISK

RISK

UNACCEPTABLE RISK

FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE

DATA BASES AND INFORMATION

EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES

HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS


Strategic collaboration i e working together on a common goal for becoming flood disaster resilient

STRATEGIC COLLABORATION (I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMON GOAL) FOR BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT


Lessons learned about disaster resilience

LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS

PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL OF THE LIKELY HAZARDS AND RISKS IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE


Lessons learned about disaster resilience1

LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE STRATEGIC COLLABORATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE


Lessons learned about disaster resilience2

LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS

TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE


Lessons learned about disaster resilience3

LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE

ALL FLOODS

PROTECTION OF A COMMUNITY’S PEOPLE, BUILDINGS, & INFRASTRUCTURE AGAINST LOSS OF FUNCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE


The aswan high dam

THE ASWAN HIGH DAM

After ten years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt was completed on July 21, 1970.


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

The Aswan High Dam, located on the Nile River just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.


The aswan high dam1

THE ASWAN (HIGH) DAM


The aswan high dam2

THE ASWAN (HIGH) DAM


The aswan high dam3

THE ASWAN HIGH DAM

  • At 364 feet (111 meters) high and about 2.4 miles (3.8 kilometers) wide, the Aswan High Dam was a marvel of construction in 1970, costing about $1 billion to build.


Electricity

ELECTRICITY

  • In addition to preventing flooding of the Nile River, the Aswan High Dam brought electricity to households and villages across Egypt that had never had it.

  • This dam's 12 turbines are capable of generating ten billion kilowatt-hours annually


Fresh water

FRESH WATER

  • The reservoir (Lake Nasser) with a gross capacity of 136,927,000 acre-feet (168.9 billion cubic meters). behind the Aswan High Dam provides a source of fresh water for the Egyptian people during drought years.


Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

Unfortunately, before the dam could be built, 90,000 of Egypt’s poor and Sudan’s Nubian nomads had to be relocated


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