Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods
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LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS EGYPT PART 1: FLOODS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA . EGYPT. POLITICAL MAP OF EGYPT (Note: Aswan).

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Lessons learned from past notable disasters egypt part 1 floods

LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERSEGYPTPART 1: FLOODS

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA 




Egypt has frequent earthquakes, floods, flash floods and landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


NATURAL HAZARDS landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN EGYPT

FLOODS

GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES

STORMS

EARTHQUAKES

HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER NRESILIENT

DUST STORMS

ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE


Natural phenomena that cause disasters
Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

Planet Earth’s atmospheric-hydrospheric-lithospheric interactions create situations favorable for FLOODS


The nile river
THE NILE RIVER landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


The nile s fertile delta
THE NILE’S FERTILE DELTA landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


Flood prone communities along the nile
FLOOD-PRONE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NILE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


The nile river1
THE NILE RIVER landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The ancient Egyptians thought of the annual floods as the annual coming of the god Hapi.

  • They did not realize that the annual flood cycle happened after rainfall in the mountains to the south swelled the tributaries and small rivers that form the northward-flowing Nile River.


Flooding is a part of the egyptian culture
FLOODING IS A PART OF THE EGYPTIAN CULTURE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The annual flooding of the Nile River (Arabic: عيد وفاء النيل‎), a natural cycle, has been a part of Egyptian culture since ancient times.

  • It is celebrated annually as a holiday (known as Wafaa El-Nil) for two weeks starting August 15.


The annual rythmn of life along the nile
THE ANNUAL RYTHMN OF LIFE ALONG THE NILE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


The annual flood cycle
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The first indications of the rise of the Nile River and the beginning of the flood cycle are typically seen as early as the beginning of June.

  • A steady increase in water level occurs until the middle of July.

  • The Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, when the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks, sometimes a little less. In October it rises again, and reaches its highest level. From this period it begins to subside, and though it rises yet once more and reaches occasionally its former highest point, it sinks steadily until the month of June when it is again at its lowest level


The annual flood cycle continued
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.(Continued)

  • The water level in the Nile continues to rise until the beginning of September, then the level remains stationary for a period of about three weeks.

  • In October the water rises again and reaches its highest level.


The annual flood cycle continued1
THE ANNUAL FLOOD CYCLE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.(Continued)

  • From October to June, the water level in the Nile continues to subside until it once again reaches its lowest level in June.


Elements of risk and disaster

ELEMENTS OF RISK AND DISASTER landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


HAZARDS landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

EXPOSURE

VULNERABILITY

LOCATION

ELEMENTS OF EARTHQUAKE RISK

RISK


Flood hazards aka potential disaster agents
FLOOD HAZARDS (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.)

  • TOO MUCH WATER DISCHARGED WITHIN THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM TO BE ACCOMMODATED NORMALLY IN THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLE

  • EROSION

  • SCOUR

  • MUDFLOWS


A DISASTER CAN HAPPEN landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.WHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF A FLOOD INTERACT WITH EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES


CAUSES OF RISK landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN

INUNDATION

INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER

FLOODS

WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)

CASE HISTORIES

EROSION AND MUDFLOWS

CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER


The annual flood cycle of landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.the Nile River has made the difference between living and dying for thousands of years in Egypt.


The nile as a source of life
THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF LIFE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The annual floods of the Nile River brought nutrient-rich silt from the mountains to the Nile delta, which produced bountiful crops.


About the right amount of water
ABOUT THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF WATER landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


The nile as a source of death
THE NILE AS A SOURCE OF DEATH landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • When the water levels in the Nile River are too high, flooding prevents deposition of the nutrient-rich silt in the Nile delta, reducing agricultural output.

  • When water levels are too low for flooding, the result is low agricultural output and possible starvation.


Too much water
TOO MUCH WATER landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.


A disaster is

A DISASTER is --- landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

--- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community torespond without external help  when three continuums: 1)  people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., floods, earthquakes,…) intersect at a point in space and time.


Disasters are caused by s landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.ingle- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.


The reasons are
THE REASONS ARE . . . landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure will be LOST.


The reasons are1
THE REASONS ARE . . . landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The community is UN-PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence—high-probability of adverse consequences event.


The reasons are2
THE REASONS ARE . . . landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The community has NODISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.


The reasons are3
THE REASONS ARE . . . landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.


The reasons are4
THE REASONS ARE . . . landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.


Floods in egypt are inevitable and damaging
FLOODS IN EGYPT ARE INEVITABLE AND DAMAGING landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • ---SO, DON’T WAIT FOR ANOTHER REMINDER OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT.


The alternative to a flood disaster is flood disaster resilience

THE ALTERNATIVE TO A FLOOD DISASTER IS landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE


  • FLOOD HAZARDS landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

  • INVENTORY

  • VULNERABILITY

  • LOCATION

  • PREPAREDNESS

  • PROTECTION

  • FORECASTS/SCENARIOS

  • EMERGENCY RESPONSE

  • RECOVERY and

  • RECONSTRUCTION

FL\OOD RISK

POLICY OPTIONS

ACCEPTABLE RISK

RISK

UNACCEPTABLE RISK

FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE

DATA BASES AND INFORMATION

EGYPT’S COMMUNITIES

HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS


Strategic collaboration i e working together on a common goal for becoming flood disaster resilient

STRATEGIC COLLABORATION landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.(I.E., WORKING TOGETHER ON A COMMON GOAL) FOR BECOMING FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENT


Lessons learned about disaster resilience
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

ALL FLOODS

PREPAREDNESS FOR ALL OF THE LIKELY HAZARDS AND RISKS IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY DISASTER RESILIENCE


Lessons learned about disaster resilience1
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

ALL FLOODS TECHNOLOGIES THAT FACILITATE STRATEGIC COLLABORATION ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE


Lessons learned about disaster resilience2
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

ALL FLOODS

TIMELY EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE


Lessons learned about disaster resilience3
LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

ALL FLOODS

PROTECTION OF A COMMUNITY’S PEOPLE, BUILDINGS, & INFRASTRUCTURE AGAINST LOSS OF FUNCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE


The aswan high dam

THE ASWAN HIGH DAM landslides, dust storms, sandstorms, periodic droughts, and hot, driving windstorms called khamsin, which occur in the spring.

After ten years of construction, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt was completed on July 21, 1970.


The Aswan High Dam, located on the Nile River just north of the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.


The aswan high dam1
THE ASWAN (HIGH) DAM the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.


The aswan high dam2
THE ASWAN (HIGH) DAM the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.


The aswan high dam3
THE ASWAN HIGH DAM the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.

  • At 364 feet (111 meters) high and about 2.4 miles (3.8 kilometers) wide, the Aswan High Dam was a marvel of construction in 1970, costing about $1 billion to build.


Electricity
ELECTRICITY the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.

  • In addition to preventing flooding of the Nile River, the Aswan High Dam brought electricity to households and villages across Egypt that had never had it.

  • This dam's 12 turbines are capable of generating ten billion kilowatt-hours annually


Fresh water
FRESH WATER the border between Egypt and Sudan, was built to control the frequent cycles of flooding and drought within Egypt.

  • The reservoir (Lake Nasser) with a gross capacity of 136,927,000 acre-feet (168.9 billion cubic meters). behind the Aswan High Dam provides a source of fresh water for the Egyptian people during drought years.


Unfortunately, before the dam could be built, 90,000 of Egypt’s poor and Sudan’s Nubian nomads had to be relocated


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