Data Structures & Algorithms
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Data Structures & Algorithms. Linked Lists. Arrays, although easy to understand have lots of disadvantages Contiguous Memory Allocation Advantage in searching but disadvantage in terms of memory usage Memory Usage is Fixed char name[25] will take 25 spaces even though name you enter is Ali

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Data Structures & Algorithms

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Data structures algorithms

Data Structures & Algorithms

Linked Lists

Array disadvantages

  • Arrays, although easy to understand have lots of disadvantages

    • Contiguous Memory Allocation

      • Advantage in searching but disadvantage in terms of memory usage

    • Memory Usage is Fixed

      • char name[25] will take 25 spaces even though name you enter is Ali

      • Should be that only 3 bytes be used

Array Disadvantages

Array disadvantages cont

  • Now consider

    Struct person


    char name[25];

    int age;


    Void main (void)


    person p[100];



How many persons you can enter (Maximum)?

What will be the space occupied in memory

after person p[100] in main ?

What if you only enter two persons… What

will be the memory size then?

Array Disadvantages (Cont.)

Need of dynamic memory allocation

  • Even if the data entered is for two persons the amount of memory taken is 100 x (25 + 4)

  • Must be a method in C/C++ through which we can allocate memory according to our needs at RUN TIME!

    • Program should ask user … do you want to enter more data … if user selects ‘Yes’ then it should allocate memory for one more person

    • This way memory will not be ‘wasted’

Need of Dynamic Memory Allocation

Dynamic memory allocation

  • Reason we study pointers is for this step (mostly)

  • C gives us function malloc (Memory Allocate) and C++ gives us Keyword New

  • We will use Malloc initially

  • Why malloc?

    • New keyword is not available in most of the embedded system programming.

    • Writing device drivers?? …. They cannot be Object Oriented, hence we must know Malloc

Dynamic Memory Allocation


  • malloc (memory allocation) is used to dynamically allocate memory at run time


    • #include <stdlib.h> // Defined in this libraryvoid *malloc(size_t size);//returns a void pointer

  • The order and contiguity of storage allocated by successive calls to malloc() is unspecified

  • The pointer returned if the allocation succeeds shall be suitably aligned so that it may be assigned to a pointer to any type of object and then used to access such an object in the space allocated

    • Void pointer is to be type casted to relevant pointer (example follows)

  • If the space cannot be allocated, a null pointer shall be returned. If the size of the space requested is 0, the behavior is implementation-defined: the value returned shall be either a null pointer or a unique pointer



#include <stdlib.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

#include <iostream.h>

void main(void)


int *p;

p = (int *) malloc (sizeof(int));

*p = 10;

cout << *p;



  • malloc(sizeof(int)), allocates memory location of size equal to that of an integer. You can use char, float, structures instead of int here

  • (int*) is basically casting void pointer returned by malloc to integer pointer so that it can be assigned to relevent pointer variable

  • We Cannotassign char * to int *

  • Pointer p points to memory location made for an integer type but is NOT NAMED… Nameless Variable


Linked list concepts

  • Data is stored in a linked list dynamically – each node is created as necessary.

  • Nodes of linked lists are not necessarily stored contiguously in memory (as in an array).

  • Although lists of data can be stored in arrays, linked lists provide several advantages.

Linked List Concepts

Advantages of linked lists

  • Advantage 1: Dynamic

  • A linked list is appropriate when the number of data elements to be stored in the list is unknown.

  • Because linked lists are dynamic, their size can grow or shrink to accommodate the actual number of elements in the list.

Advantages of Linked Lists


  • The size of a “conventional” C++ array, however, cannot be altered, because the array size is fixed at compile time.

  • Also, arrays can become full (i.e., all elements of the array are occupied).

  • A linked list is full only When???????



  • Advantage 2: Easy Insertions and Deletions

  • Although arrays are easy to implement and use, they can be quite inefficient when sequenced data needs to be inserted or deleted.

  • However, the linked list structure allows us to easily insert and delete items from a list. With arrays, it is more difficult to rearrange data (copying to temporary variables, etc.)



  • However, linked lists are not without their drawbacks.

  • For example, we can perform efficient searches on arrays (e.g., binary search) but this is not practical with a linked list.


Memory view of linked list

Memory View of Linked List

Linked list data structure

  • One of the attributes of a linked list is that there is not a physical relationship between the nodes; that is, they are not stored contiguously in memory (as array elements are).

  • To determine the beginning of the list, and each additional element in the list, we need to use pointers.

Linked List Data Structure

Linked list data structure1

  • The pointer to the first node in the list is referred to as the head pointer, because it points to the head node in the list.

  • In addition to the head pointer, there are usually other pointers associated with the list. These can include a pointer to the last element in the list (tail pointer) and a pointer that traverses the list to find data (navigator or traversal pointer).

Linked List Data Structure…

Linked list data structure2

  • Oftentimes it is convenient to create a structure that contains the head pointer of a list and also information about the list itself (e.g., number of elements currently in the list, maximum number of elements to be allowed in the list, etc).

  • This extra data is referred to as metadata.

Linked List Data Structure…

Implementation abstraction

  • A linked list is usually implemented with 2 classes/structures:

    • List class

    • Node class

  • The Node class will contain the data and link fields.

  • The List class will contain the head pointer and the metadata, along with the list insert and delete functions.

Implementation Abstraction


  • With a linked list, there are a standard set of functions that operate on the list:

    • Creating the list

      • Initialize pointers to NULL

    • Inserting nodes

      • Insert at beginning

      • Insert at middle

      • Insert at last

    • Deleting nodes

      • Delete from beginning, middle, last

    • Traversing the list

    • Destroying the list


Sample program

  • We will create dynamic list of persons

  • User can enter as many persons as he wants

  • Can add persons at rear, front

    • You do it for adding persons in middle

  • Can delete persons at rear

    • Do it for front, middle

  • Can view contents of list any time

Sample Program

Prototypes and declaration

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <iostream.h>

#include <conio.h>

struct person {

char name[25];

int age;

struct person *Next_Person;


struct linkedlist {

struct person *head;

struct person *tail;

int nodeCount;


void initialize(linkedlist *ll);

void InsertFront(linkedlist *ll);

void InsertRear(linkedlist *ll);

void DeleteRear(linkedlist *ll);

void getData(person *p);

void PrintList(linkedlist *ll);

Prototypes and Declaration

Data structures algorithms

void main (void)


linkedlist ll; //linked list created

initialize(&ll); //linked list initialized

int choice = 0;

//list is empty, lets create person dynamically and



cout << " 1: Insert item in front" << endl;

cout << " 2: Insert item in rear" << endl;

cout << " 3: Delete item from front" << endl;

cout << " 4: Delete item from rear" << endl;

cout << " 5: Print List" << endl;

cout << " 8: Exit" << endl;

cin >> choice;

if (choice == 1)

{ InsertFront(&ll);}

if (choice == 2)

{ InsertRear(&ll);}

if (choice == 3)

{//DeleteFront(&ll); }

if (choice == 4)

{ DeleteRear(&ll);}

if (choice == 5)

{ PrintList(&ll); }

}while (choice != 8);











void initialize(linkedlist *ll)


ll->head = NULL;

ll->tail = NULL;

ll->nodeCount = 0;



Insert item at the front

void InsertFront(linkedlist *ll)


if (ll->head == NULL && ll->nodeCount == 0) //means empty list


person *p;

p = (person*) malloc(sizeof(person));


ll->head = p;

ll->tail = p;





person *p;

p = (person*) malloc(sizeof(person));


p->Next_Person = ll->head ;

ll->head = p;

ll->nodeCount++; //increment counter



Insert Item at the Front

Insert rear

void InsertRear(linkedlist *ll)


if (ll->head == NULL && ll->nodeCount == 0) //means empty list


person *p;

p = (person*) malloc(sizeof(person));


ll->head = p;

ll->tail = p;





person *p;

p = (person*) malloc(sizeof(person));


p->Next_Person = NULL; //rear insertion... hence points to NULL.

ll->tail->Next_Person = p; //now point tail of second last element to last

ll->tail = p;//yes tail is now the new element inserted

ll->nodeCount++; //increment counter



Insert Rear

Delete rear

void DeleteRear(linkedlist *ll)


person *tempNext;

person *tempPrevious;

tempNext = ll->head ;

if (ll->nodeCount > 0 )

{//we can use for loop with nodeCount or the following method

while (tempNext->Next_Person != NULL)


tempPrevious = tempNext;

tempNext = tempNext->Next_Person ;


tempPrevious->Next_Person = NULL;


ll->nodeCount --;



Delete Rear

Print list

void PrintList(linkedlist *ll)


int i = 0;

struct person *tempNode;

tempNode = ll->head ;

cout << "The linked list is..." << endl;

for (i = 0; i < ll->nodeCount ; i++)


cout << tempNode->name << endl; ;

tempNode = tempNode->Next_Person ;



Print List

Getdata from user

void getData(person *p)


cin >> p->name ;

cin >> p->age ;

p->Next_Person = NULL;//just to initialize


getData from User!

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