Chapter 2 ecology
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Chapter 2 - Ecology. Ecology = the study of how organisms interact with one another and the non-living environment. Parts of the environment: Biosphere - Portion of the earth that supports life. http://stloe.most.go.th/html/lo_index/LOcanada1/102/images/L02_4.jpg. 2 Types of Factors.

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Chapter 2 - Ecology

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Chapter 2 ecology

Chapter 2 - Ecology


Ecology the study of how organisms interact with one another and the non living environment

Ecology = the study of how organisms interact with one another and the non-living environment

  • Parts of the environment:

    Biosphere - Portion of the earth that supports life.

http://stloe.most.go.th/html/lo_index/LOcanada1/102/images/L02_4.jpg


2 types of factors

2 Types of Factors

1. Abiotic

2. Biotic

  • anything in the environment that is non-living

  • Examples: air, currents, temperature, moisture, light, chemicals, water…

  • anything in the environment that is living

  • Examples: animals, plants, bacteria…


Habitat

Habitat

  • Area where an organism lives ( “address”).

  • Example: the habitat of a polar bear is the ice-covered arctic waters.

    www.greenpeace.org/raw/image


Niche

Niche

  • A living thing’s particular role in the environment (“occupation”).

  • “What does it eat?” “Where does it eat?”

  • Example: polar bears are seal-eating carnivores in the arctic.

  • Note: no two species can occupy the same niche! 


Levels of organization

Levels of Organization

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere


Organism

Organism

  • Any individual thing that is living

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere


Species

Species

  • A group of organisms that can produce fertile offspring

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere

cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=64220&rendTypeId


Population

Population

  • A group of the same species in an area

    www.hiltonpond.org/images/MonarchCluster01.jpg

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere


Community

Community

  • The collection of interacting populations in a given area

    www.thedailygreen.com/cm/thedailygreen/images/UG/monarch-butterfly-lg.jpg

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere


Ecosystem

Ecosystem

  • A community and its physical surroundings

  • Open vs. Closed

    www.jaxshells.org/spi13.jpg

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere


Ecosystem1

Ecosystem

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere

A community and its physical surroundings

Open vs. Closed


Biosphere

Biosphere

  • The layer of the Earth that supports life (all of the ecosystems on the planet).

  • Bacteria have been found 16,400 feet below sea level and some birds are known to fly over Mt. Everest (the highest point on Earth)!

Organism

Species

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere


Warm ups 9 14

Warm-Ups 9/14

1. Which of the following factors are abiotic?

Water currentAlgae

TemperatureFish

Salinity (salt concentration)Light

2. True or false? An organism’s niche is like its “address.”

3. Many populations of species and their physical surroundings are called a(n) __________.


Abstract hints prewriting

Abstract hints: PREWRITING

  • Make an outline! Then research information that addresses the paper.

  • What is the issue? Learn about it.

  • What are the pros? (social, $, etc…)

  • What are the cons? (social, $, etc…)


Abstract hints prewriting1

Abstract hints: PREWRITING

Look for sources with specific information

  • Don’t go searching for a single source with all the information you need

  • Make an outline of what you need first, then go hunting.

    • Example: If you need info on the positive financial impact of cloning, skim for sources that specifically discuss how much money cloning companies can make.


Living together

Living Together

  • Symbiosis = a relationship in which there is a close and permanent association among organisms of different species.

  • Three different kinds of symbioses:

    Mutualism = both species benefit from each other

    Examples: Lichens = Fungi & Algae Ostrich & Gazelle

    Commensalism = one species benefits and the other is not harmed.

    Examples: Remora & Shark

    Parasitism = one species benefits and the other is harmed (but not killed).

    Examples: ticks, tapeworms, leeches


Mutualism

Mutualism

Ostrich and Gazelle

maratriangle.wildlifedirect.org/.../dscf4402.JPG


Mutualism1

Mutualism

Lichen


Commensalism

Commensalism

Shark and Remora

bp.blogspot.com/.../s400/remora1.jpg


Commensalism1

Commensalism

Eyebrow mites


Parasitism

Parasitism

You and a tick

http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/diaglab/hilites/hilt5_7.html


Other kinds of interrelationships

Other kinds of interrelationships:

  • Inter-specific Competition = between two different populations

    Example: an owl and an eagle both want a rodent

  • Intra-specific Competition = is among the same species

    Example: two redwing blackbirds compete for mates, territory and/or food

  • Predation = predator/hunter eats prey/hunted

    Examples: a Venus fly trap eats insects or a Hawk eats a rabbit


Interrelationships

Interrelationships:


Warm ups 9 15

Warm-Ups 9/15

1. What are mutualism, commensalism and parasitism all forms of?

2. True or false? Two bucks fighting over a doe is an example of inter-specific competition?

3. What type of symbiotic relationship would include moss growing on a tree?


Abstract hints prewriting2

Pick good sources

Books in library

Articles found through SIRS (filtered for you)

Websites ending in .edu, .org, .gov

Avoid using the first result from a Google search, or Wikipedia

Interview people that work in the field related to your topic

Abstract hints: PREWRITING


Abstract hints prewriting3

Keep track of sources while you are researching

Make note cards

Keep a list

Use your student folders, gaggle account, digital locker…

Abstract hints: PREWRITING


Energy flow

ENERGY FLOW


Chapter 2 ecology

  • What is the ultimate source of energy in all ecosystems?

  •  SUN - …not considered a trophic (living) level

  • Feeding Levels

      A) Producers (Autotrophs = “self-feeder”): Plants

    How do they make own food supply?

    • Light energy transformed to Chemical energy by photosynthesis.

      B) Consumers (Heterotroph = “other-feeder”): Animals1st order: eats producers

      2nd order: eats 1st order consumer

      3rd order: eats 2nd order consumer


Types of consumers

TYPES OF CONSUMERS

  • Herbivore: eats only plants

  • Carnivore: eats only animals

  • Omnivore: eats both plants and animals

  • Saprovore: eats dead organisms (cleaners)

    Scavengers: eat dead things (e.g. crows)

    Decomposers: fungus/maggots/bacteria


Food chain

FOOD CHAIN

  • A food chain = direct feeding links in the environment.

  • A chain of organisms in which each link feeds on the one ahead and is eaten by the one behind.

  • Shows transfer of matter

    and energy.

neuromanagement.files.wordpress.com/2009/


Trophic levels

Trophic levels

  • Organisms in a food chain that represent a feeding step in the passage of energy and materials through an ecosystem.

  • Place the following organisms in their appropriate trophic levels: Snake, Grass, Hawk, Mouse

  • 1sttrophic level = Producer -

  • 2ndtrophic level = 1st Order Consumer -

  • 3rdtrophic level = 2nd Order Consumer -

  • 4thtrophic level = 3rd Order Consumer -


1 st trophic level producer grass

1sttrophic level = Producer - GRASS

www.momgoesgreen.com/wp-content//grass.jpg


2 nd trophic level 1st order consumer mouse

2ndtrophic level = 1st Order Consumer - MOUSE

http://www.australianfauna.com/images/pilligamouse.jpg


3 rd trophic level 2nd order consumer snake

3rdtrophic level =2nd Order Consumer - SNAKE

www.lucis.me.uk/snake_1.jpg


4 th trophic level 3rd order consumer hawk

4thtrophic level = 3rd Order Consumer - HAWK

www.thevillager.com/vil_92/hawk.gif


Energy

ENERGY

  • 90 % of all the energy that passes from one organism to another is lost through heat/use

  • Therefore, only 10% is passed on after the material is digested.


Food web

FOOD WEB =

All the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in the ecosystem (a tangle of many food chains). pg 53

Usually food webs are

based on a specific

community.

ridge.icu.ac.jp/.../ecosystem-jpgs/food-web.jpg


Thought o the day

Thought o’ the day:

Imagine you are in a roped-off section of the forest. All the producers, herbivores, and consumers are put into piles. Which do you think will be the largest? Why?


Chapter 2 ecology

  • Create a food web below using the following organisms in an ecosystem:

    bee, deer, beetle, squirrel, rabbit, mouse, blackberries, snake, owl, grass, bear, wolf, oak tree, sparrow.


Warm ups 9 16

Warm-Ups 9/16

1. What is the term for the interrelationships of populations in an area?

2. What is the ultimate source of energy in all ecosystems?

3. Animals are heterotrophs and plants are ________.


Abstract hints prewriting4

Check MANY sources!

Do multiple sources say the same thing?

Skim a variety of articles/books/websites first, then go diving deeper into specific sources

Abstract hints: PREWRITING


Warm ups 9 17

Warm-Ups 9/17

1. What do saprovores eat? What are the two types of saprovores?

2. Which of the following organisms is a producer?GrassSun

Nathan LaneMushroom

3. How much energy is lost by heat/use by each trophic level?

4. What is ecology?


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