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M.A.D.: Mutually Assured Destruction. THE COLD WAR. 1922: The Soviet Union was Created. WW II: Stalin Signs “non-aggression” treaty with Hitler (Western Countries DO NOT Trust Stalin and the U.S.S.R.

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THE COLD WAR

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M.A.D.: Mutually Assured Destruction

THE COLD WAR


1922: The Soviet Union was Created


WW II: Stalin Signs “non-aggression” treaty with Hitler(Western Countries DO NOT Trust Stalin and the U.S.S.R.

August 23, 1939. News of the Pact stunned the world and paved the way for the beginning of World War Two with Hitler assured the Germans would not have to fight a war on two fronts.


Roots of the Cold War

  • U.S. point of view:

  • Stalin seemed intent on creating "spheres" of influence in Eastern Europe

  • Broke pledges at Yalta; refused to allow reunification of Germany

  • Churchhill's "Iron Curtain" speech in 1946 alerted Americans to a future conflict

  • U.S. wanted democracy spread throughout the world with a strong international organization to maintain global peace


This began the “Cold War” Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech, March 5, 1946

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe.”


WW II 1945 U.S.S.R. encircles Berlin, city is divided, Germany is divided


1955: USSR creates Warsaw Pact (dissolved in 1991)


Truman Doctrine 1947 was “Containment” (NATO,SEATO)

Truman and Marshall felt deeply about the responsibility that the United States had in aiding other countries against communism, stating,

“I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid, which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.”


1947 Marshall Plan $12 Billion

  • “European Recovery Program.”

  • Secretary of State, George Marshall

  • The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.

  • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].


1948: Berlin Crisis, Berlin Airlift

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2736111333508202187&hl=en


1949: North Atlantic Treaty Organization: NATO


M.A.D.

  • Mutually Assured Destruction: U.S. and U.S.S.R. had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other…MANY TIMES OVER!

  • United States “Nuclear Triad”

  • 1. I.C.B.M’s: with MIRVS

  • 2. SLBM’s: Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles

  • 3. S.A.C.: Strategic Air Command

  • Scientists created the “Doomsday Clock”


1950-1953: Korean War


The Hungarian Uprising: 1956

Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister

  • Promised free elections.

  • This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.


1957-Sputnik--October 4, 1957…Begins the “Space Race”

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/10/071003-sputnik-video.html


1960: U-2 Spy Plane incident, Francis Gary Powers

On May 1, 1960, a U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers was shot down in the Soviet Union. This event had a lasting negative impact on U.S. - U.S.S.R. relations.


The Blackbird


1961: Berlin Wall constructed


1962: Cuban Missile Crisis


1965-1973: Vietnam War


Vietnam Map


“Prague Spring” (1968)

Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček

Communism with a human face!


1979-1989: AFGHANISTAN War


War in Afghanistan

  • The Soviet war in Afghanistan was a nine-year conflict involving Soviet Union forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan government against the mujahideen resistance. The latter group found support from a variety of sources including the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim nations in the context of the Cold War. This conflict was concurrent to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and the Iran–Iraq War.


1989-1991:Perestroika (restructuring) Glasnost (openness)INF Treaty: Intermediate Nuclear Forces START Treaty: Strategic Arms Reduction Talks


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