Western civilization ii his 102
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Western Civilization II HIS-102. UNIT 2 - Religious Wars And State Building (1540-1660). Introduction. The period of 1540 to 1660 is considered one of the most turbulent in European history

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Western civilization ii his 102

Western Civilization IIHIS-102

UNIT 2 - Religious Wars And State Building (1540-1660)


Introduction

Introduction

  • The period of 1540 to 1660 is considered one of the most turbulent in European history

    • It is a period of a sharp rise in inflation and a further deepening of the gulf between the rich and the poor

    • It is plagued by a century of violent wars of religion

    • It is also a period of time of political instability

      • Old powers fall

      • A new type of government emerges: the absolute monarchy


Sweeping changes

Sweeping Changes

  • Prior to 1540, Europe was enjoying diverse forms of prosperity

    • Populations were finally recovering from the 14th century plague

      • From 1450 to 1600, the population went from 50 to 90 million

    • There was a period of economic growth

      • With the discovery of the New World, this growth was expected to continue

    • Governments were becoming more effective in their management

      • Thus they were more successful at keeping the inside of their country stable

  • So what went wrong?


Price revolution

Price Revolution

  • Price Revolution

    • Between 1550 and 1600, prices doubled and even quadrupled in certain areas

    • Mainly due to a rise in population but no rise in agricultural production

      • There were no technological breakthroughs in agriculture to produce enough food for the population

    • The food shortage led to a sharp increase in cost

      • A larger percentage of people’s incomes were going to food

  • During this period, wages either stagnated or declined

    • Increase in population led to an increase in the labor supply

    • Because there were too many workers, wages either remained the same or went down


Price revolution1

Price Revolution

  • Devaluation of silver

    • Due to the large influx of Spanish bullion from the New World

    • These new coins quickly circulated throughout Europe

  • Only large-scale farmers, landlords, and some merchants profited from the Price Revolution

  • The masses were negatively affected

    • When disasters hit, people would literally starve to death

  • Even the monarchies were affected

    • The governments required a constant income

    • The taxes were worth less and less as money became devalued

    • Wars were becoming increasingly more expensive

    • They responded by levying even higher taxes than before


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  • Peasants during a summer harvest (1568)


Religious conflict

Religious Conflict

  • The religious atmosphere of Europe during this period was also tense

  • Catholics and Protestants hated one another

    • As long as these rivalries remained heated, wars were inevitable

  • Leaders also fanned the flames of religious conflict

    • Many required their states to have a unified religion

    • Minority religious groups were seen as threats

      • Many were kicked out of country

    • This led to civil wars in numerous country

      • They expanded into international wars in many cases

  • From 1540 to 1648, Europe was plagued with conflict


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  • Diet of Augsburg (1530)


German wars of religion

German Wars of Religion

  • The religious wars began in Germany

    • Between the Lutherans and the Catholics

    • Lutheranism was gaining in popularity with the German princes

  • Charles V was busy with more greater threats to his rule

    • This included the French and the Ottoman Turks

    • He had hoped that the Pope would take care of the situation

  • In 1547, Charles was able to focus on Germany

    • With a huge army behind him, he attacked the Protestants

    • With the help of the pope, Charles was able to defeat numerous Protestant strongholds by 1547 and force them to reconvert

    • But by this point Protestantism was so popular there was nothing he could do would stop the movement


German wars of religion1

German Wars of Religion

  • Revolts continued to break out throughout the Empire

    • Even the Catholic princes were fearful of Charles taking away what little independence they had

  • In 1552, the Elector of Saxony had signed an alliance with King Henry II of France

    • This would have brought France into the war

    • However, by this point, Charles was not up for a heavy war and had his brother Ferdinand work on a truce

  • The war finally ended with the Peace of Augsburg (1555)

    • Lutherans were given equal legal status in the Empire

    • Cuiusregio, eiusreligio (“whose reign, that religion”)

    • This was a victory for the independence of the German states and further weakened the Holy Roman Empire


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  • Henry II of France

    • (1547-1559)


French wars of religion

French Wars of Religion

  • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)

    • This period is also known as the French Civil War

  • Huguenots were the main Protestant group in France

    • French Calvinists

    • They made up 10-20% of the French population by 1562

    • It became popular amongst the aristocratic women who then in turn converted their husbands

  • Under the rule of Henry II, there was an uneasy peace between the crown and the Huguenots

    • Huguenots were forced to meet in secret at first but over time grew in popularity


French wars of religion1

French Wars of Religion

  • Expansion of Calvinism

    • First Huguenot communities were built starting in 1546

    • In 1555, the first Huguenot church was erected in Paris

    • By the late 1550s, they demanded freedom of worship

  • On June 30, 1559, Henry II died in a jousting accident

  • This left his 15-year-old son, Francis II as king

    • He was a sickly child

    • Henry’s wife, Catherine de’ Medici, was chosen to be regent

  • The struggles between the Catholics and the Huguenots began after Francis took the throne


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  • Francis II

    • (1559-1560)


French wars of religion2

French Wars of Religion

  • One the one side you had the Guise family

    • Led by Francis Duke of Guise and Charles Cardinal of Lorraine

    • Believed that the country should be firmly Catholic

    • Instituted an intense policy of persecution against the Huguenots

  • On the other side was Louis, Prince de Condé

    • He was the leader of the Huguenot movement

  • On December 5, 1560, Francis II died

    • He had an ear infection that led to the formation of an abscess in his brain


French wars of religion3

French Wars of Religion

  • Next up was his ten year old brother, Charles IX

    • His mother, Catherine de’ Medici, was again named regent

  • Massacre at Vassy (March 1, 1562)

    • Duke of Guise attacked a group of Huguenots who were worshipping inside the city walls

    • 23 Huguenots were killed and over 100 more injured

    • Prince de Condé called all Protestants to arm themselves in self-defense

  • The war went on for eight years with intermittent truces

    • During this time, the Prince de Condé died and Henry of Navarre took control of the Huguenots


French wars of religion4

French Wars of Religion

  • By 1570, the French treasury was shrinking from the cost of the war

    • Charles began negotiations for a peace

  • Peace of Saint-Germain (August 8, 1570)

    • Huguenots were given freedom of conscience throughout France

    • Were also allowed to hold public office

    • They retained the right to worship publicly in the regions allowed before the wars

  • In order to solidify peace, Catherine arranged for a marriage

    • This was to be between her daughter Marguerite to Henry of Navarre, the Huguenot leader


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  • Marguerite de Valois


French wars of religion5

French Wars of Religion

  • The wedding created a tense situation in Paris

    • There were many who would not support the wedding

    • The Parisians were very uncomfortable with thousands of Huguenots in the city escorting their prince

  • On August 22, 1572, an assassination attempt was made on one of the Huguenot leaders, the Admiral de Coligny

    • Catherine ordered the French guards to attack the Huguenots as a “preemptive strike” against Huguenot retaliation

  • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 24, 1572)

    • All but two of the Huguenot leaders, Henry of Navarre and the young Henri I, Prince of Condé, were murdered

    • The Parisian people joined in the fighting

      • There are estimates that as many of 3,000 Huguenots were murdered in Paris alone


French wars of religion6

French Wars of Religion

  • The fighting spread to the countryside

    • An additional 10,000 were killed

  • Charles IX claimed responsibility for the massacre stating that there had been a plot against the crown

  • Charles died on May 30, 1574 from tuberculosis

    • He was only 24

  • Next in line was his brother Henry III

    • He was 22 years old when he took the throne but was the best “king material” out of the four brothers

  • Henry main goal was to find peace between the Catholics and Huguenots

    • The Guise family was not going to make this possible


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  • Henry III

    • (1574-1589)


French wars of religion7

French Wars of Religion

  • In 1576, the Guises formed the Catholic League and renewed the war

  • In 1584, Henry’s last brother, François, died

    • Since Henry III had no children, this meant that the next person in line for the throne was Henry of Navarre

    • This would not be tolerated by the Catholics

  • The Catholic League dominated this phase of the war

    • Guise marched into Paris with his troops in 1588, forcing Henry III to flee

    • Guise also made Henry III sign a number of edicts excluding Henry of Navarre from the throne along with any heretics


French wars of religion8

French Wars of Religion

  • By this point, Henry III was tired of being dominated by Guise

    • He discovered that Guise was receiving aid from Philip II of Spain

    • Guise also had been negotiating a treaty with Spain declaring Philip’s daughter to be the heir presumptive

  • On December 23, 1588, Henry III had the Guise brothers assassinated

    • Henry then went on to make an alliance with Henry of Navarre

  • On August 1, 1589, Jacques Clément, a fanatical Dominican friar, stabbed Henry III

    • Before he died, Henry III declared that Henry of Navarre was the legitimate heir to the throne


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  • Henry IV

    • (1589-1610)


French wars of religion9

French Wars of Religion

  • Henry IV’s rule marked the beginning of the Bourbon dynasty

  • War continued for the next nine years

    • Many of the nobility were staunch Catholic and refused to follow Henry IV

  • By this point, the state of France was in a miserable condition

    • The country was nearly bankrupt

    • Many farmlands and towns had been abandoned, and many of the roads were in ruins

    • Because of the warfare, trade was at a standstill

  • Henry realized that he had to do something drastic to win the hearts of the French


French wars of religion10

French Wars of Religion

  • On July 23, 1593, Henry converted to Catholicism

    • Protestantism was more of a “family tradition” rather than a religious devotion to him

  • On March 22, 1594, Henry was able to finally retake the city of Paris

    • He supposedly said that “Paris is well worth the mass!”

  • However, Philip II continued to support the Catholic League and its efforts to oust Henry

    • In January 1595, Henry declared war against Spain


French wars of religion11

French Wars of Religion

  • For the next three years, Henry was fighting the remnants of the League as well as Spain

    • Henry was forced to bribe many Catholic noblemen to lay down their arms and accept him as king

  • Edict of Nantes (April 13, 1598)

    • This was Henry’s “bribe” to the Huguenots

    • It established Catholicism as the official religion of France

    • Huguenots allowed to worship, attend universities, and serve as public officials

    • It created separate spheres of influence between the two religions

  • On May 2, 1598, the war was finally brought to an end


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  • Philip II of Spain

    • (1556-1598)


Dutch wars with spain

Dutch Wars with Spain

  • One of the most powerful political figures at this time was Philip II of Spain

  • He depended heavily on the income from the colonies

    • However, all of the gold and silver (specie) coming into Europe devalued the currency

  • The war with France put Spain heavily into debt

    • 2/3 of Spain’s income went to paying interest on all the loans taken out by the government

  • Spain’s main source of income in Europe came from the Low Countries

    • This is modern day Belgium and the Netherlands which were under Spanish control at this time


Dutch wars with spain1

Dutch Wars with Spain

  • During the reign of Charles V, this region prospered

    • He had allowed the government to essentially run on its own

    • The southern Low Countries had the greatest per capita wealth in all of Europe

    • Antwerp as one of the leading financial and commercial centers in Europe

  • On October 25, 1555, Charles gave the Low Countries to his son, Philip II

  • Philip hoped to increase the amount of money coming to Spain from the Low Countries

    • This included Philip playing a greater role in the region


Dutch wars with spain2

Dutch Wars with Spain

  • During this period, many Protestants were moving into the Low Countries

    • After 1559, many Huguenots migrating to the Low Countries

    • There were a large number of Anabaptists and some Lutherans

    • Philip himself was a staunch Catholic and believed God had chosen him to combat the forces of evil

  • William the Silent and a group of noblemen recognized the growing tensions in the country

    • They made it their duty to bring peace back to the region

    • Starting in 1561, these noblemen sent numerous petitions to Margaret of Parma, Philip’s appointee to the Low Countries

    • They asked for religious toleration for the Calvinists to ease some of that tension but she refused


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  • William the Silent

    • (1533-1584)


Dutch wars with spain3

Dutch Wars With Spain

  • “Breaking of the Images” (August 1566)

    • Mobs of radical Protestants desecrated hundreds of churches and monasteries

    • Was a reaction to the increased persecution of Protestants

  • In response, Philip II sent in an army of twelve thousand Spanish troops

    • They were led by the Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, the 3rd Duke of Alva

  • Once the radicals were defeated, Alva then instituted a reign of terror

    • He set up the Council of Troubles which was a special tribunal to deal with heresy and sedition


Dutch wars with spain4

Dutch Wars With Spain

  • William the Silent was forced to flee the Low Countries

    • From abroad, he converted to Protestantism and reorganized the resistance movement

    • He was able to get aid from France, Germany and England

  • Now more organized, the resistance movement began their own attacks

    • In the summer of 1572, William seized the northern Low Countries

  • The Low Countries began to split along religious lines

    • The Protestant northern part broke off forming the United Provinces of the Netherlands

    • The Catholic southern part remained loyal to Philip


Dutch wars with spain5

Dutch Wars With Spain

  • In 1584, William was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic

    • His son, William II Duke of Orange, continued to lead the resistance

  • At this point, England became involved in the war

    • Elizabeth openly declared her country’s support of the resistance

    • England was successful in its attacks at sea, but not on land

  • The war continued to wage for a number of years with both sides having major losses and defeats

  • In 1609, a ceasefire was declared between the two sides known as the Twelve Years’ Truce


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  • Spanish Armada (1588)


Spanish armada

Spanish Armada

  • For the past few years, English ships had been terrorizing Spanish ships and colonies

    • This was done under the guise of revenge for the Spanish attacks on the Dutch

    • Sir Francis Drake and other seamen were shipping contraband to the Spanish colonies in violation of Philip II’s policies

    • Philip was thoroughly annoyed at these tactics

  • In 1585, Philip decided to construct a large armada to use against England

    • His fleet would help support an invasion of England

    • This way, he would not only regain control of the Atlantic but convert England back to Catholicism


Spanish armada1

Spanish Armada

  • When Drake found out about the Armada, he sailed ships to the Spanish coast in April 1587

    • He made it straight into the port of Cadiz

      • There he destroyed supplies put aside for the Armada and set vessels on fire

      • He later boasted that he “singed the king’s beard”

    • He then went on to patrol the Spanish coast, destroying any vessels and supplies that he could

    • All of this delayed the deployment of the Armada for over a year

    • This incident proved that the Spanish fleet was no match for the English but Philip continued on with his preparations


Spanish armada2

Spanish Armada

  • There were a number of key problems with the Armada

    • Assumed that the English navy would flee at the sight of it

    • It was led by theDuke of Medina-Sedona

    • When the Armada took off on May 30, 1588, it was soon heavily damaged by a storm

      • This forced them back to port for repairs

      • Sedona even told Philip that this might not be the wisest course of action but Philip would not hear of it

    • The fleet set off for a second time on July 12, 1588

  • The English worked together to protect their country

    • Improved land defenses by training a militia and setting up a series of bonfires and beacon towers along the coastline

    • The navy was reinforced and raised from 34 ships to 200


Spanish armada3

Spanish Armada

  • First sighting (July 29, 1588)

    • The beacon lights and bonfires were set all along the coastline and troops were readied

  • The English navy used their speed and longer ranged guns to attack the Armada

    • They constantly remained out of shooting distance of the Spanish ships

  • On August 7, the English sent eight “fireships”

    • This caused the Spanish ships to scatter

  • On August 8, the English attacked the Armada off the Gravelines

    • The English were now in range for the Spanish guns

    • The Spanish were not trained properly for battle


Spanish armada4

Spanish Armada

  • The Armada was forced to retreat

    • The “Protestant” winds forced the Armada to travel back to Spain by going north around Scotland

    • Between the bad weather and attacks by the English fleet, most of the Armada was destroyed

      • Only 60 ships returned to Spain and most of those were too damaged to be repaired

      • Around 15,000 Spanish died

  • Defeat of the Armada marked a victory for the Protestants

    • If Philip had won, he could have destroyed the Protestant movement throughout Europe


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  • Route of the Armada


The thirty years war 1618 1648

The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)

  • Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)

    • The largest and deadliest of the wars of religion

  • Was a true international war as it contained multiple players:

    • The Holy Roman Empire

    • Spain

    • France

    • Sweden and Demark

  • Both the Protestants and the Catholics had begun making defensive alliances earlier in the century

    • This increased religious tensions in the Empire


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  • Religious breakdown of Europe in 1618


Phases of the war

Phases of the War

  • The Thirty Years’ War is divided into four phases

  • While the war starts mainly on religious grounds, as time goes on it takes more of a political air

    • At first the war is Protestants versus the Catholic HRE Ferdinand II

    • However, as time goes on, more countries get involved because they were fearful of Ferdinand’s growing power

      • They were afraid it would upset the fragile balance of power

    • By the time of the last phase, religion is not involved at all

      • It was clearly a political war between the French and the Habsburgs

      • Whoever won the last phase would be the champion of Europe


Western civilization ii his 102

  • Ferdinand II

    • King of Bohemia (1617–1619 and 1620–1637)

    • Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637)


Bohemian revolt 1618 1625

Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)

  • This phase of the war takes place completely in Germany

    • It is also based primarily on religion

  • Bohemia at the time was a mostly Protestant population

    • Around 65% were a mix of Calvinists, Lutherans, and Anabaptists

  • Even though the ruling minority was Catholic, earlier kings had made concessions to the Protestants

    • This was mainly due to the economic importance of Bohemia

    • In 1609, Emperor Rudolf II granted a Letter of Majesty

    • This basically granted freedom of religion throughout Bohemia

    • Throughout the reign of King (and later Emperor) Matthias (1611-1617), Bohemia enjoyed religious diversity and peace


Bohemian revolt 1618 16251

Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)

  • Troubles began when Ferdinand Habsburg was elected King of Bohemia in 1617

    • Ferdinand quickly ended all concessions made to the Protestants

    • He set up a regent government that was mainly Catholic

    • Laws were enforced forbidding Protestants from holding office

  • Protestants were fearful of losing their religious liberties

    • They appealed to Ferdinand but the requests fell on deaf ears

  • On May 23, 1618, a group of Protestants kidnapped two of the king’s Catholic advisors at the royal palace in Prague


Bohemian revolt 1618 16252

Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)

  • A mock trial was held and the advisors were found “guilty” of violating the Letter of Majesty

    • As punishment, the advisors along with their secretary were thrown out of the window 70 feet off the ground

    • Catholics say that the officials survived because of the intervention of the Virgin Mary

    • Protestants knew the real reason: they landed in a huge pile of manure

    • This event is known as the Second Defenestration of Prague

  • This began the Bohemian Revolt and the Thirty Years War


Western civilization ii his 102

  • Defenestration of Prague (May 23, 1618)


Bohemian revolt 1618 16253

Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)

  • In 1619, Ferdinand was elected as the new Emperor

    • He took the title Ferdinand II

  • His main goal was to unify the Empire under Catholicism

    • To do so, he turned to his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain, for help against the Protestants

  • The Protestants had no hope of winning

    • Ferdinand not only received aid from Spain but also had the use of Maximillian of Bavaria and his 30,000 troops

  • At the end of the war, Ferdinand made Protestantism illegal in Bohemia

    • Included forcing out all Protestant ministers

    • Over 30,000 families were forced to flee the country


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  • Christian IV of Denmark

    • (1588-1648)


Danish intervention 1625 1629

Danish Intervention (1625-1629)

  • Many of the European powers did not like the heavy hand Ferdinand was using on Bohemia

    • They were also resentful of the growing power of the Habsburgs

  • King Christian IV of Denmark was especially concerned

    • He was a Lutheran and held territory in the Empire (Holstein)

  • Both Britain and France were willing to provide financial support to Christian

    • The French, under Richelieu, wanted to weaken the power of the Habsburgs

    • The British had begun following a very anti-Spanish policy

    • Christian was able to raise an army of over 35,000


Danish intervention 1625 16291

Danish Intervention (1625-1629)

  • In June 1625, Christian invaded Lower Saxony

    • He claimed he was intervening “on behalf of the Protestant cause”

    • Also felt that the sovereignty of Denmark was threatened

  • Ferdinand hired Albrecht von Wallenstein, the military governor of Prague, to lead his army

  • Catholic forces took control in northern Germany

    • On September 14, 1627, they invaded Holstein

    • This was followed up with an invasion of Denmark

  • Treaty of Lübeck (May 22, 1629)

    • Between Christian and Wallenstein

    • Christian was able to hold on to Holstein as long as he did not get involved in the affairs of the Empire again


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  • Gustavus Adolfus of Sweden

    • (1611-1632)


Swedish intervention 1630 1635

Swedish Intervention (1630-1635)

  • Like Christian, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden got involved in Germany on behalf of the Protestants

  • On July 6, 1630, Gustavus invaded the Empire

    • He had a very well-trained 14,000 man army

    • Easily took northern Germany and moved south

    • In response, Ferdinand was forced to recall Wallenstein to lead his army

  • Peace of Prague (May 30, 1635)

    • Any lands held by Protestant rulers in 1627 were retained

    • All princes inside the Empire were forbidden to make alliances with other members of the Empire or with any foreign powers


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  • Louis XIII of France

    • (1610-1643)


French intervention 1636 1648

French Intervention (1636-1648)

  • This phase of the war had no religious affiliations involved

    • This is also known as the War for Europe

    • Shift to a war between the emperor and foreign powers

    • German people were not real participants in this phase

  • France had been financing the war efforts since the start

    • It became more actively involved by 1635

    • French minister, Cardinal Richelieu, wanted to quell the Habsburg threat

    • Alliances were made with the Dutch and with the Swedes

  • War was declared against Ferdinand II in March 1636

    • French were fighting in the Netherlands and western Germany

    • Swedes and Dutch were fighting the emperor in northern Germany


French intervention 1636 16481

French Intervention (1636-1648)

  • While both sides won key victories, they were both plagued by lack of money and supplies

  • Battle of Rocroi (May 19, 1643)

    • French troops devastated a combined Spanish-Imperial force

    • This battle marks the end of Spanish military dominance as it was the first time in a century that they were so cleanly defeated

  • It was going to take five years to work out a final agreement to bring the war to a close

  • The Peace of Westphalia (1648)

    • It involved 194 rulers including representatives from France, Spain, Dutch Republic, Sweden, and Ferdinand III as well as numerous German Princes


Peace of westphalia 1648

Peace of Westphalia (1648)

  • It acknowledged the validity of the Peace of Augsburg

    • It allowed the German princes to determine the religion of their subjects

    • This time it included Calvinism as a legal religion

    • Those practicing a denomination that was not the official religion of the land could still practice in public with some restrictions

  • Protestants would retain any church lands in their possession prior to January 1, 1624

  • The constitution of the empire was rewritten

    • All of the German states were given almost completely autonomy

    • Only restriction: they could not make alliances against the Emperor


Consequences of the war

Consequences of the War

  • It is estimated that 3-8 million Germans died

    • This was approximately 20-40% of the population

    • Partly due to the actual war itself, but also disease (typhus, dysentery, and the bubonic plague) and the famine that resulted from it

  • Many cities in Germany were besieged and sacked over and over

  • On top of this, undisciplined troops and mercenary armies committed such atrocities as looting and burning much of the countryside

  • This marks the official end of the Reformation


Divergent paths

Divergent Paths

  • From 1600 to 1660, the three “big” powers of Europe were going to take very different paths

    • Spain would go on a path of decline

    • France would rise in power

    • England would be plagued with internal problems

  • By1600, Spain was already in trouble

    • Used very little of the gold and silver it acquired from the New World to develop its own industries

    • Depended on products imported from other countries

    • The Spanish military was out-of-date

    • The government was too inefficient to address serious issues


Decline of spain

Decline of Spain

  • Primary weakness was economic

    • Spain lacked agricultural and mineral resources

    • Needed to develop industries and a balanced trading pattern

    • The nobility lived in splendor and dedicated itself to military exploits

    • Huge military expenditures with numerous wars

  • Philip III (1598-1621)

    • Was not interested in running the government

    • His main concern was miracle-working relics and his court

    • He lavished himself in luxury

    • His minister, the Duke of Lerma, was corrupt and contributed to the collapse of the Spanish economy

    • In 1607, the Spanish monarchy declared bankruptcy


Decline of spain1

Decline of Spain

  • Philip IV (1621-1665)

    • Also not interested in running the government

    • His minister, Count-Duke of Olivares, tried to fix the economy but it was too little too late

    • The Thirty Years War heavily damaged the fragile economy

  • These economic problems led to numerous revolts

    • The occurred in Catalonia, Portugal, and Naples (1640s)

    • Spain was able to regain Catalonia and Naples but Portugal kept its independence

  • Spain abandoned its ambition of dominating Europe


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  • Philip IV of Spain

    • (1621-1665)


Rise of france

Rise of France

  • After 1598, Henry IV had two main issues to deal with:

    • Reviving agriculture, industry, and commerce inside of France

    • Reestablishing royal authority

  • To help him rebuild France, Henry appointed the Duke of Sully as his minister

    • First, he had to reform the royal finances

    • Second, he had to improve the economy

    • He was so successful that he was able to reduce taxes and cut down the national debt by 1/3

  • Henry also had to reestablish royal authority

    • He did this by putting down revolts as they broke out

  • Henry was assassinated on May 14, 1610


Rise of france1

Rise of France

  • Louis XIII (1610-1643)

    • Was 8 years old when he took the throne

  • In 1624, Cardinal Richelieu became the first minister

    • Some say that Richelieu was the actual power behind France

  • Richelieu had two goals:

    • Make France the dominant power in Europe by centralizing the government

      • With the nobility he worked to take away their independence by removing their estates’ fortifications

      • With the Huguenots, he deprived them of political and military rights

    • Challenging the power of the Habsburgs

      • This was done by supporting the Protestants during the Thirty Years War


Rise of france2

Rise of France

  • Louis XIV (1643-1716)

    • Ascended to the throne at the age of four

    • Anne of Austria was regent with Mazarin as chief minister

      • Both were very unpopular, especially with the nobility

      • They were considered weak and Mazarin was despised as a foreigner

  • Fronde Revolts (1648-1653)

    • Nobility reasserting power

    • Revolt was against Anne and Mazarin, not Louis

    • Masses joined in because of poor economy and bad harvests

    • Revolts continued until Louis came of age


Western civilization ii his 102

  • James I

    • (1603-1625)


Troubles in england

Troubles in England

  • From 1603 to 1660, England would find itself in the midst of internal turmoil

  • With the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the Tudor dynasty came to an end

    • Her cousin, James VI of Scotland would become king, founding the Stuart dynasty

  • The first two Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, would be plagued with both political and religious trouble

    • There would be a struggle between king and Parliament over who has more authority

    • There would also be struggles between the Anglicans and the Catholics and Puritans

    • These would culminate into a civil war


Troubles in england1

Troubles in England

  • General causes of the civil war:

    • Constitutional hostilities between king and Parliament

    • Religious animosities

    • Power struggles between competing aristocratic factions at court

    • Outdated fiscal system

    • Rebellion in Ireland

    • Widespread crop failures

  • James I (1603-1625)

    • Many considered him to be a “foreigner” as he was Scottish

    • He was described as possessing little dignity, having ungracious manners, a blundering tongue, and he drooled when he spoke

    • Henry IV of France called him the “wisest fool in Christianity”


James i 1603 1625

James I (1603-1625)

  • James’ reign was going to be divided up into two main points of contention

    • One was religious and the other was his relationship with Parliament

  • The religious controversy was with the Catholics and the Puritans

    • Neither of these groups had been happy with the Elizabethan Compromise

    • Puritans wanted a more Calvinistic styled church and a new Bible

    • Catholics turned to violence when James refused to lift the restrictions against them

      • Most famous plot was the Gunpowder Plot of 1605


James i 1603 16251

James I (1603-1625)

  • James was not going to have a good relationship with Parliament either

    • He strongly believed in the divine right of kings

  • England was heavily in debt when he took the throne

    • It continued to increase over the course of his reign

    • Parliament tried to assert its power through control of taxation

    • James refused to cooperate, dissolved Parliament, and collected taxes without their consent

    • He also began selling peerages to the highest bidder in an effort to raise money

      • A new landless title of Baronet was available for £1,095, Baron could be bought for £8,000 and Earl for £10,000


Western civilization ii his 102

  • Charles I

    • (1625-1649)


Charles i 1625 1649

Charles I (1625-1649)

  • From the very beginning Charles had issues with Parliament

    • Charles was arrogant and just like his father strongly believed in the divine right of kings

  • The main focus of this conflict was on money

    • Every time Charles tried to get more funds from Parliament, they would respond with either a small sum of money or an outright rejection

    • This frustrated him so much that he dissolved Parliament three times over the course of his reign

    • Instead he was forced to find other ways of collecting money:

      • “Forced loans” from the wealthy

      • Collection of custom duties without Parliamentary approval


Charles i 1625 16491

Charles I (1625-1649)

  • In 1628, Parliament issued the Petition of Right

    • This was a list of grievances against the crown in which Parliament prohibited:

      • Taxes without their consent

      • Arbitrary imprisonment

      • The declaration of martial law in peacetime

      • The quartering of soldiers in private houses

  • Charles dismissed Parliament in 1629

    • During this time, Charles pursued a course called “personal rule”

    • The English called it the “Eleven Year Tyranny”

    • Instituted mass collection of the Ship’s Money


Charles i 1625 16492

Charles I (1625-1649)

  • Charles finally had to recall Parliament again in 1640

    • The Presbyterians in Scotland began a revolt

    • He needed large amounts of money to put down the revolt

  • Parliament began stripping Charles of much of his power

    • This included abolition of arbitrary courts and any taxes collected by the king without Parliament’s consent

    • It then passed the Triennial Act

      • Parliament must meet at least once every three years

  • In October 1641, a Catholic rebellion broke out in Ireland

    • Many blamed the Catholic Queen Henrietta Maria for this as a ploy to bring Catholicism back to England


Charles i 1625 16493

Charles I (1625-1649)

  • In late 1641, a rumor spread that Parliament was going to impeach the Queen on charges of treason

    • Charles responded by bringing 400 troops into London

    • He planned to arrest five Puritan members of the House of Commons on charges of treason

    • However, they had been tipped off and fled to safety

  • Fearing for his own safety, Charles left London

    • Many royalists left London as well to be with the king

  • He attempted to negotiate with Parliament throughout the summer of 1641

    • When that failed, he went to gather enough troops to force Parliament out


Western civilization ii his 102

  • Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector

    • (1653-1658)


English civil war 1642 1649

English Civil War (1642-1649)

  • There were two sides to the civil war

    • The Cavaliers

      • These were followers of the king

      • They were primarily members of the nobility and moderate Protestants

    • The Roundheads

      • These were the supporters of Parliament

      • They were called “roundheads” because of their haircuts

      • They were primarily merchants, tradesmen, and farmers

  • First phase of the war (1642-1646)

    • The Cavaliers had the better trained army which allowed them key victories in the beginning


English civil war 1642 16491

English Civil War (1642-1649)

  • Rise of the “Independents”

    • Radical Puritans led by Oliver Cromwell

    • Distrusted the king and wanted to bring about religious tolerance

  • New Model Army

    • Roundheads reorganized their army in 1645

    • People were placed in the army based on their skill rather than social rank

    • Many of the Puritans believed that they were doing battle for the Lord

  • This change of strategy led to victories for the Roundheads


English civil war 1642 16492

English Civil War (1642-1649)

  • In 1646, Charles surrendered to the Scots

  • Many Puritans wanted to restore Charles to the throne

    • They wanted a Presbyterian state church and attempted negotiations with Charles

    • In the meantime, Charles fled London in 1647

  • He was able to regroup and get enough forces to start the second phase of the war (1648-1649)

    • Cromwell defeated the king in a very short campaign

    • Charles was forced to surrender

  • The big question was: what to do with Charles?

    • While some were upset with Charles’ betrayal, many MPs were still willing to negotiate with him

    • However, the army was not


English civil war 1642 16493

English Civil War (1642-1649)

  • Cromwell brought the army into London and then directly into Parliament

    • 45 MPs were arrested as part of “Pride’s Purge”

    • Those who remained made up the “Rump Parliament”

  • Cromwell ordered the trial of the king in January 1649

    • While a majority of the population disliked Charles, they were against the execution of the king

    • Even still, the 59 judges found him guilty

  • On January 30, 1649 Charles was executed

    • He was beheaded at the Palace of Whitehall


Western civilization ii his 102

  • Execution of Charles I (January 30, 1649)


The commonwealth 1649 1653

The Commonwealth (1649-1653)

  • After the death of Charles, the Rump Parliament abolished the monarchy and House of Lords

  • Creation of a Commonwealth in May 1649

    • A Council of State was put together to handle foreign and domestic policy

    • Government was set up along the lines of a Calvinistic theocracy

    • Some religious reforms took place but economic problems prevented major changes

  • On April 20, 1653, Cromwell ended the Commonwealth

    • He was dissatisfied with the Parliament, accusing them of not being godly enough

    • “Ye have no more religion than my horse; gold is your God…”


Protectorate 1653 1658

Protectorate (1653-1658)

  • On December 16, 1653, the Protectorate was established

    • Cromwell was given the title Lord Protector

      • This made him the sole ruler of England

      • Thinly disguised autocracy

    • He instituted the Rule of Major-Generals in August 1655

      • This ended up creating a virtual military state in England

      • It was more absolute than the previous monarchs

  • Cromwell died on September 3, 1658

  • His son Richard became Protectorate

  • By this point, the people of England wanted a king back in power

    • They began negotiating with Charles’ son to take the throne


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