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Western Civilization II HIS-102. UNIT 2 - Religious Wars And State Building (1540-1660). Introduction. The period of 1540 to 1660 is considered one of the most turbulent in European history

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western civilization ii his 102

Western Civilization IIHIS-102

UNIT 2 - Religious Wars And State Building (1540-1660)

introduction
Introduction
  • The period of 1540 to 1660 is considered one of the most turbulent in European history
    • It is a period of a sharp rise in inflation and a further deepening of the gulf between the rich and the poor
    • It is plagued by a century of violent wars of religion
    • It is also a period of time of political instability
      • Old powers fall
      • A new type of government emerges: the absolute monarchy
sweeping changes
Sweeping Changes
  • Prior to 1540, Europe was enjoying diverse forms of prosperity
    • Populations were finally recovering from the 14th century plague
      • From 1450 to 1600, the population went from 50 to 90 million
    • There was a period of economic growth
      • With the discovery of the New World, this growth was expected to continue
    • Governments were becoming more effective in their management
      • Thus they were more successful at keeping the inside of their country stable
  • So what went wrong?
price revolution
Price Revolution
  • Price Revolution
    • Between 1550 and 1600, prices doubled and even quadrupled in certain areas
    • Mainly due to a rise in population but no rise in agricultural production
      • There were no technological breakthroughs in agriculture to produce enough food for the population
    • The food shortage led to a sharp increase in cost
      • A larger percentage of people’s incomes were going to food
  • During this period, wages either stagnated or declined
    • Increase in population led to an increase in the labor supply
    • Because there were too many workers, wages either remained the same or went down
price revolution1
Price Revolution
  • Devaluation of silver
    • Due to the large influx of Spanish bullion from the New World
    • These new coins quickly circulated throughout Europe
  • Only large-scale farmers, landlords, and some merchants profited from the Price Revolution
  • The masses were negatively affected
    • When disasters hit, people would literally starve to death
  • Even the monarchies were affected
    • The governments required a constant income
    • The taxes were worth less and less as money became devalued
    • Wars were becoming increasingly more expensive
    • They responded by levying even higher taxes than before
religious conflict
Religious Conflict
  • The religious atmosphere of Europe during this period was also tense
  • Catholics and Protestants hated one another
    • As long as these rivalries remained heated, wars were inevitable
  • Leaders also fanned the flames of religious conflict
    • Many required their states to have a unified religion
    • Minority religious groups were seen as threats
      • Many were kicked out of country
    • This led to civil wars in numerous country
      • They expanded into international wars in many cases
  • From 1540 to 1648, Europe was plagued with conflict
german wars of religion
German Wars of Religion
  • The religious wars began in Germany
    • Between the Lutherans and the Catholics
    • Lutheranism was gaining in popularity with the German princes
  • Charles V was busy with more greater threats to his rule
    • This included the French and the Ottoman Turks
    • He had hoped that the Pope would take care of the situation
  • In 1547, Charles was able to focus on Germany
    • With a huge army behind him, he attacked the Protestants
    • With the help of the pope, Charles was able to defeat numerous Protestant strongholds by 1547 and force them to reconvert
    • But by this point Protestantism was so popular there was nothing he could do would stop the movement
german wars of religion1
German Wars of Religion
  • Revolts continued to break out throughout the Empire
    • Even the Catholic princes were fearful of Charles taking away what little independence they had
  • In 1552, the Elector of Saxony had signed an alliance with King Henry II of France
    • This would have brought France into the war
    • However, by this point, Charles was not up for a heavy war and had his brother Ferdinand work on a truce
  • The war finally ended with the Peace of Augsburg (1555)
    • Lutherans were given equal legal status in the Empire
    • Cuiusregio, eiusreligio (“whose reign, that religion”)
    • This was a victory for the independence of the German states and further weakened the Holy Roman Empire
french wars of religion
French Wars of Religion
  • French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
    • This period is also known as the French Civil War
  • Huguenots were the main Protestant group in France
    • French Calvinists
    • They made up 10-20% of the French population by 1562
    • It became popular amongst the aristocratic women who then in turn converted their husbands
  • Under the rule of Henry II, there was an uneasy peace between the crown and the Huguenots
    • Huguenots were forced to meet in secret at first but over time grew in popularity
french wars of religion1
French Wars of Religion
  • Expansion of Calvinism
    • First Huguenot communities were built starting in 1546
    • In 1555, the first Huguenot church was erected in Paris
    • By the late 1550s, they demanded freedom of worship
  • On June 30, 1559, Henry II died in a jousting accident
  • This left his 15-year-old son, Francis II as king
    • He was a sickly child
    • Henry’s wife, Catherine de’ Medici, was chosen to be regent
  • The struggles between the Catholics and the Huguenots began after Francis took the throne
slide14
Francis II
    • (1559-1560)
french wars of religion2
French Wars of Religion
  • One the one side you had the Guise family
    • Led by Francis Duke of Guise and Charles Cardinal of Lorraine
    • Believed that the country should be firmly Catholic
    • Instituted an intense policy of persecution against the Huguenots
  • On the other side was Louis, Prince de Condé
    • He was the leader of the Huguenot movement
  • On December 5, 1560, Francis II died
    • He had an ear infection that led to the formation of an abscess in his brain
french wars of religion3
French Wars of Religion
  • Next up was his ten year old brother, Charles IX
    • His mother, Catherine de’ Medici, was again named regent
  • Massacre at Vassy (March 1, 1562)
    • Duke of Guise attacked a group of Huguenots who were worshipping inside the city walls
    • 23 Huguenots were killed and over 100 more injured
    • Prince de Condé called all Protestants to arm themselves in self-defense
  • The war went on for eight years with intermittent truces
    • During this time, the Prince de Condé died and Henry of Navarre took control of the Huguenots
french wars of religion4
French Wars of Religion
  • By 1570, the French treasury was shrinking from the cost of the war
    • Charles began negotiations for a peace
  • Peace of Saint-Germain (August 8, 1570)
    • Huguenots were given freedom of conscience throughout France
    • Were also allowed to hold public office
    • They retained the right to worship publicly in the regions allowed before the wars
  • In order to solidify peace, Catherine arranged for a marriage
    • This was to be between her daughter Marguerite to Henry of Navarre, the Huguenot leader
french wars of religion5
French Wars of Religion
  • The wedding created a tense situation in Paris
    • There were many who would not support the wedding
    • The Parisians were very uncomfortable with thousands of Huguenots in the city escorting their prince
  • On August 22, 1572, an assassination attempt was made on one of the Huguenot leaders, the Admiral de Coligny
    • Catherine ordered the French guards to attack the Huguenots as a “preemptive strike” against Huguenot retaliation
  • St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 24, 1572)
    • All but two of the Huguenot leaders, Henry of Navarre and the young Henri I, Prince of Condé, were murdered
    • The Parisian people joined in the fighting
      • There are estimates that as many of 3,000 Huguenots were murdered in Paris alone
french wars of religion6
French Wars of Religion
  • The fighting spread to the countryside
    • An additional 10,000 were killed
  • Charles IX claimed responsibility for the massacre stating that there had been a plot against the crown
  • Charles died on May 30, 1574 from tuberculosis
    • He was only 24
  • Next in line was his brother Henry III
    • He was 22 years old when he took the throne but was the best “king material” out of the four brothers
  • Henry main goal was to find peace between the Catholics and Huguenots
    • The Guise family was not going to make this possible
slide21
Henry III
    • (1574-1589)
french wars of religion7
French Wars of Religion
  • In 1576, the Guises formed the Catholic League and renewed the war
  • In 1584, Henry’s last brother, François, died
    • Since Henry III had no children, this meant that the next person in line for the throne was Henry of Navarre
    • This would not be tolerated by the Catholics
  • The Catholic League dominated this phase of the war
    • Guise marched into Paris with his troops in 1588, forcing Henry III to flee
    • Guise also made Henry III sign a number of edicts excluding Henry of Navarre from the throne along with any heretics
french wars of religion8
French Wars of Religion
  • By this point, Henry III was tired of being dominated by Guise
    • He discovered that Guise was receiving aid from Philip II of Spain
    • Guise also had been negotiating a treaty with Spain declaring Philip’s daughter to be the heir presumptive
  • On December 23, 1588, Henry III had the Guise brothers assassinated
    • Henry then went on to make an alliance with Henry of Navarre
  • On August 1, 1589, Jacques Clément, a fanatical Dominican friar, stabbed Henry III
    • Before he died, Henry III declared that Henry of Navarre was the legitimate heir to the throne
slide24
Henry IV
    • (1589-1610)
french wars of religion9
French Wars of Religion
  • Henry IV’s rule marked the beginning of the Bourbon dynasty
  • War continued for the next nine years
    • Many of the nobility were staunch Catholic and refused to follow Henry IV
  • By this point, the state of France was in a miserable condition
    • The country was nearly bankrupt
    • Many farmlands and towns had been abandoned, and many of the roads were in ruins
    • Because of the warfare, trade was at a standstill
  • Henry realized that he had to do something drastic to win the hearts of the French
french wars of religion10
French Wars of Religion
  • On July 23, 1593, Henry converted to Catholicism
    • Protestantism was more of a “family tradition” rather than a religious devotion to him
  • On March 22, 1594, Henry was able to finally retake the city of Paris
    • He supposedly said that “Paris is well worth the mass!”
  • However, Philip II continued to support the Catholic League and its efforts to oust Henry
    • In January 1595, Henry declared war against Spain
french wars of religion11
French Wars of Religion
  • For the next three years, Henry was fighting the remnants of the League as well as Spain
    • Henry was forced to bribe many Catholic noblemen to lay down their arms and accept him as king
  • Edict of Nantes (April 13, 1598)
    • This was Henry’s “bribe” to the Huguenots
    • It established Catholicism as the official religion of France
    • Huguenots allowed to worship, attend universities, and serve as public officials
    • It created separate spheres of influence between the two religions
  • On May 2, 1598, the war was finally brought to an end
dutch wars with spain
Dutch Wars with Spain
  • One of the most powerful political figures at this time was Philip II of Spain
  • He depended heavily on the income from the colonies
    • However, all of the gold and silver (specie) coming into Europe devalued the currency
  • The war with France put Spain heavily into debt
    • 2/3 of Spain’s income went to paying interest on all the loans taken out by the government
  • Spain’s main source of income in Europe came from the Low Countries
    • This is modern day Belgium and the Netherlands which were under Spanish control at this time
dutch wars with spain1
Dutch Wars with Spain
  • During the reign of Charles V, this region prospered
    • He had allowed the government to essentially run on its own
    • The southern Low Countries had the greatest per capita wealth in all of Europe
    • Antwerp as one of the leading financial and commercial centers in Europe
  • On October 25, 1555, Charles gave the Low Countries to his son, Philip II
  • Philip hoped to increase the amount of money coming to Spain from the Low Countries
    • This included Philip playing a greater role in the region
dutch wars with spain2
Dutch Wars with Spain
  • During this period, many Protestants were moving into the Low Countries
    • After 1559, many Huguenots migrating to the Low Countries
    • There were a large number of Anabaptists and some Lutherans
    • Philip himself was a staunch Catholic and believed God had chosen him to combat the forces of evil
  • William the Silent and a group of noblemen recognized the growing tensions in the country
    • They made it their duty to bring peace back to the region
    • Starting in 1561, these noblemen sent numerous petitions to Margaret of Parma, Philip’s appointee to the Low Countries
    • They asked for religious toleration for the Calvinists to ease some of that tension but she refused
dutch wars with spain3
Dutch Wars With Spain
  • “Breaking of the Images” (August 1566)
    • Mobs of radical Protestants desecrated hundreds of churches and monasteries
    • Was a reaction to the increased persecution of Protestants
  • In response, Philip II sent in an army of twelve thousand Spanish troops
    • They were led by the Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, the 3rd Duke of Alva
  • Once the radicals were defeated, Alva then instituted a reign of terror
    • He set up the Council of Troubles which was a special tribunal to deal with heresy and sedition
dutch wars with spain4
Dutch Wars With Spain
  • William the Silent was forced to flee the Low Countries
    • From abroad, he converted to Protestantism and reorganized the resistance movement
    • He was able to get aid from France, Germany and England
  • Now more organized, the resistance movement began their own attacks
    • In the summer of 1572, William seized the northern Low Countries
  • The Low Countries began to split along religious lines
    • The Protestant northern part broke off forming the United Provinces of the Netherlands
    • The Catholic southern part remained loyal to Philip
dutch wars with spain5
Dutch Wars With Spain
  • In 1584, William was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic
    • His son, William II Duke of Orange, continued to lead the resistance
  • At this point, England became involved in the war
    • Elizabeth openly declared her country’s support of the resistance
    • England was successful in its attacks at sea, but not on land
  • The war continued to wage for a number of years with both sides having major losses and defeats
  • In 1609, a ceasefire was declared between the two sides known as the Twelve Years’ Truce
spanish armada
Spanish Armada
  • For the past few years, English ships had been terrorizing Spanish ships and colonies
    • This was done under the guise of revenge for the Spanish attacks on the Dutch
    • Sir Francis Drake and other seamen were shipping contraband to the Spanish colonies in violation of Philip II’s policies
    • Philip was thoroughly annoyed at these tactics
  • In 1585, Philip decided to construct a large armada to use against England
    • His fleet would help support an invasion of England
    • This way, he would not only regain control of the Atlantic but convert England back to Catholicism
spanish armada1
Spanish Armada
  • When Drake found out about the Armada, he sailed ships to the Spanish coast in April 1587
    • He made it straight into the port of Cadiz
      • There he destroyed supplies put aside for the Armada and set vessels on fire
      • He later boasted that he “singed the king’s beard”
    • He then went on to patrol the Spanish coast, destroying any vessels and supplies that he could
    • All of this delayed the deployment of the Armada for over a year
    • This incident proved that the Spanish fleet was no match for the English but Philip continued on with his preparations
spanish armada2
Spanish Armada
  • There were a number of key problems with the Armada
    • Assumed that the English navy would flee at the sight of it
    • It was led by theDuke of Medina-Sedona
    • When the Armada took off on May 30, 1588, it was soon heavily damaged by a storm
      • This forced them back to port for repairs
      • Sedona even told Philip that this might not be the wisest course of action but Philip would not hear of it
    • The fleet set off for a second time on July 12, 1588
  • The English worked together to protect their country
    • Improved land defenses by training a militia and setting up a series of bonfires and beacon towers along the coastline
    • The navy was reinforced and raised from 34 ships to 200
spanish armada3
Spanish Armada
  • First sighting (July 29, 1588)
    • The beacon lights and bonfires were set all along the coastline and troops were readied
  • The English navy used their speed and longer ranged guns to attack the Armada
    • They constantly remained out of shooting distance of the Spanish ships
  • On August 7, the English sent eight “fireships”
    • This caused the Spanish ships to scatter
  • On August 8, the English attacked the Armada off the Gravelines
    • The English were now in range for the Spanish guns
    • The Spanish were not trained properly for battle
spanish armada4
Spanish Armada
  • The Armada was forced to retreat
    • The “Protestant” winds forced the Armada to travel back to Spain by going north around Scotland
    • Between the bad weather and attacks by the English fleet, most of the Armada was destroyed
      • Only 60 ships returned to Spain and most of those were too damaged to be repaired
      • Around 15,000 Spanish died
  • Defeat of the Armada marked a victory for the Protestants
    • If Philip had won, he could have destroyed the Protestant movement throughout Europe
the thirty years war 1618 1648
The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  • Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
    • The largest and deadliest of the wars of religion
  • Was a true international war as it contained multiple players:
    • The Holy Roman Empire
    • Spain
    • France
    • Sweden and Demark
  • Both the Protestants and the Catholics had begun making defensive alliances earlier in the century
    • This increased religious tensions in the Empire
phases of the war
Phases of the War
  • The Thirty Years’ War is divided into four phases
  • While the war starts mainly on religious grounds, as time goes on it takes more of a political air
    • At first the war is Protestants versus the Catholic HRE Ferdinand II
    • However, as time goes on, more countries get involved because they were fearful of Ferdinand’s growing power
      • They were afraid it would upset the fragile balance of power
    • By the time of the last phase, religion is not involved at all
      • It was clearly a political war between the French and the Habsburgs
      • Whoever won the last phase would be the champion of Europe
slide46
Ferdinand II
    • King of Bohemia (1617–1619 and 1620–1637)
    • Holy Roman Emperor (1619-1637)
bohemian revolt 1618 1625
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • This phase of the war takes place completely in Germany
    • It is also based primarily on religion
  • Bohemia at the time was a mostly Protestant population
    • Around 65% were a mix of Calvinists, Lutherans, and Anabaptists
  • Even though the ruling minority was Catholic, earlier kings had made concessions to the Protestants
    • This was mainly due to the economic importance of Bohemia
    • In 1609, Emperor Rudolf II granted a Letter of Majesty
    • This basically granted freedom of religion throughout Bohemia
    • Throughout the reign of King (and later Emperor) Matthias (1611-1617), Bohemia enjoyed religious diversity and peace
bohemian revolt 1618 16251
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • Troubles began when Ferdinand Habsburg was elected King of Bohemia in 1617
    • Ferdinand quickly ended all concessions made to the Protestants
    • He set up a regent government that was mainly Catholic
    • Laws were enforced forbidding Protestants from holding office
  • Protestants were fearful of losing their religious liberties
    • They appealed to Ferdinand but the requests fell on deaf ears
  • On May 23, 1618, a group of Protestants kidnapped two of the king’s Catholic advisors at the royal palace in Prague
bohemian revolt 1618 16252
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • A mock trial was held and the advisors were found “guilty” of violating the Letter of Majesty
    • As punishment, the advisors along with their secretary were thrown out of the window 70 feet off the ground
    • Catholics say that the officials survived because of the intervention of the Virgin Mary
    • Protestants knew the real reason: they landed in a huge pile of manure
    • This event is known as the Second Defenestration of Prague
  • This began the Bohemian Revolt and the Thirty Years War
bohemian revolt 1618 16253
Bohemian Revolt (1618-1625)
  • In 1619, Ferdinand was elected as the new Emperor
    • He took the title Ferdinand II
  • His main goal was to unify the Empire under Catholicism
    • To do so, he turned to his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain, for help against the Protestants
  • The Protestants had no hope of winning
    • Ferdinand not only received aid from Spain but also had the use of Maximillian of Bavaria and his 30,000 troops
  • At the end of the war, Ferdinand made Protestantism illegal in Bohemia
    • Included forcing out all Protestant ministers
    • Over 30,000 families were forced to flee the country
danish intervention 1625 1629
Danish Intervention (1625-1629)
  • Many of the European powers did not like the heavy hand Ferdinand was using on Bohemia
    • They were also resentful of the growing power of the Habsburgs
  • King Christian IV of Denmark was especially concerned
    • He was a Lutheran and held territory in the Empire (Holstein)
  • Both Britain and France were willing to provide financial support to Christian
    • The French, under Richelieu, wanted to weaken the power of the Habsburgs
    • The British had begun following a very anti-Spanish policy
    • Christian was able to raise an army of over 35,000
danish intervention 1625 16291
Danish Intervention (1625-1629)
  • In June 1625, Christian invaded Lower Saxony
    • He claimed he was intervening “on behalf of the Protestant cause”
    • Also felt that the sovereignty of Denmark was threatened
  • Ferdinand hired Albrecht von Wallenstein, the military governor of Prague, to lead his army
  • Catholic forces took control in northern Germany
    • On September 14, 1627, they invaded Holstein
    • This was followed up with an invasion of Denmark
  • Treaty of Lübeck (May 22, 1629)
    • Between Christian and Wallenstein
    • Christian was able to hold on to Holstein as long as he did not get involved in the affairs of the Empire again
swedish intervention 1630 1635
Swedish Intervention (1630-1635)
  • Like Christian, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden got involved in Germany on behalf of the Protestants
  • On July 6, 1630, Gustavus invaded the Empire
    • He had a very well-trained 14,000 man army
    • Easily took northern Germany and moved south
    • In response, Ferdinand was forced to recall Wallenstein to lead his army
  • Peace of Prague (May 30, 1635)
    • Any lands held by Protestant rulers in 1627 were retained
    • All princes inside the Empire were forbidden to make alliances with other members of the Empire or with any foreign powers
french intervention 1636 1648
French Intervention (1636-1648)
  • This phase of the war had no religious affiliations involved
    • This is also known as the War for Europe
    • Shift to a war between the emperor and foreign powers
    • German people were not real participants in this phase
  • France had been financing the war efforts since the start
    • It became more actively involved by 1635
    • French minister, Cardinal Richelieu, wanted to quell the Habsburg threat
    • Alliances were made with the Dutch and with the Swedes
  • War was declared against Ferdinand II in March 1636
    • French were fighting in the Netherlands and western Germany
    • Swedes and Dutch were fighting the emperor in northern Germany
french intervention 1636 16481
French Intervention (1636-1648)
  • While both sides won key victories, they were both plagued by lack of money and supplies
  • Battle of Rocroi (May 19, 1643)
    • French troops devastated a combined Spanish-Imperial force
    • This battle marks the end of Spanish military dominance as it was the first time in a century that they were so cleanly defeated
  • It was going to take five years to work out a final agreement to bring the war to a close
  • The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
    • It involved 194 rulers including representatives from France, Spain, Dutch Republic, Sweden, and Ferdinand III as well as numerous German Princes
peace of westphalia 1648
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • It acknowledged the validity of the Peace of Augsburg
    • It allowed the German princes to determine the religion of their subjects
    • This time it included Calvinism as a legal religion
    • Those practicing a denomination that was not the official religion of the land could still practice in public with some restrictions
  • Protestants would retain any church lands in their possession prior to January 1, 1624
  • The constitution of the empire was rewritten
    • All of the German states were given almost completely autonomy
    • Only restriction: they could not make alliances against the Emperor
consequences of the war
Consequences of the War
  • It is estimated that 3-8 million Germans died
    • This was approximately 20-40% of the population
    • Partly due to the actual war itself, but also disease (typhus, dysentery, and the bubonic plague) and the famine that resulted from it
  • Many cities in Germany were besieged and sacked over and over
  • On top of this, undisciplined troops and mercenary armies committed such atrocities as looting and burning much of the countryside
  • This marks the official end of the Reformation
divergent paths
Divergent Paths
  • From 1600 to 1660, the three “big” powers of Europe were going to take very different paths
    • Spain would go on a path of decline
    • France would rise in power
    • England would be plagued with internal problems
  • By1600, Spain was already in trouble
    • Used very little of the gold and silver it acquired from the New World to develop its own industries
    • Depended on products imported from other countries
    • The Spanish military was out-of-date
    • The government was too inefficient to address serious issues
decline of spain
Decline of Spain
  • Primary weakness was economic
    • Spain lacked agricultural and mineral resources
    • Needed to develop industries and a balanced trading pattern
    • The nobility lived in splendor and dedicated itself to military exploits
    • Huge military expenditures with numerous wars
  • Philip III (1598-1621)
    • Was not interested in running the government
    • His main concern was miracle-working relics and his court
    • He lavished himself in luxury
    • His minister, the Duke of Lerma, was corrupt and contributed to the collapse of the Spanish economy
    • In 1607, the Spanish monarchy declared bankruptcy
decline of spain1
Decline of Spain
  • Philip IV (1621-1665)
    • Also not interested in running the government
    • His minister, Count-Duke of Olivares, tried to fix the economy but it was too little too late
    • The Thirty Years War heavily damaged the fragile economy
  • These economic problems led to numerous revolts
    • The occurred in Catalonia, Portugal, and Naples (1640s)
    • Spain was able to regain Catalonia and Naples but Portugal kept its independence
  • Spain abandoned its ambition of dominating Europe
rise of france
Rise of France
  • After 1598, Henry IV had two main issues to deal with:
    • Reviving agriculture, industry, and commerce inside of France
    • Reestablishing royal authority
  • To help him rebuild France, Henry appointed the Duke of Sully as his minister
    • First, he had to reform the royal finances
    • Second, he had to improve the economy
    • He was so successful that he was able to reduce taxes and cut down the national debt by 1/3
  • Henry also had to reestablish royal authority
    • He did this by putting down revolts as they broke out
  • Henry was assassinated on May 14, 1610
rise of france1
Rise of France
  • Louis XIII (1610-1643)
    • Was 8 years old when he took the throne
  • In 1624, Cardinal Richelieu became the first minister
    • Some say that Richelieu was the actual power behind France
  • Richelieu had two goals:
    • Make France the dominant power in Europe by centralizing the government
      • With the nobility he worked to take away their independence by removing their estates’ fortifications
      • With the Huguenots, he deprived them of political and military rights
    • Challenging the power of the Habsburgs
      • This was done by supporting the Protestants during the Thirty Years War
rise of france2
Rise of France
  • Louis XIV (1643-1716)
    • Ascended to the throne at the age of four
    • Anne of Austria was regent with Mazarin as chief minister
      • Both were very unpopular, especially with the nobility
      • They were considered weak and Mazarin was despised as a foreigner
  • Fronde Revolts (1648-1653)
    • Nobility reasserting power
    • Revolt was against Anne and Mazarin, not Louis
    • Masses joined in because of poor economy and bad harvests
    • Revolts continued until Louis came of age
slide70
James I
    • (1603-1625)
troubles in england
Troubles in England
  • From 1603 to 1660, England would find itself in the midst of internal turmoil
  • With the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the Tudor dynasty came to an end
    • Her cousin, James VI of Scotland would become king, founding the Stuart dynasty
  • The first two Stuart monarchs, James I and Charles I, would be plagued with both political and religious trouble
    • There would be a struggle between king and Parliament over who has more authority
    • There would also be struggles between the Anglicans and the Catholics and Puritans
    • These would culminate into a civil war
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Troubles in England
  • General causes of the civil war:
    • Constitutional hostilities between king and Parliament
    • Religious animosities
    • Power struggles between competing aristocratic factions at court
    • Outdated fiscal system
    • Rebellion in Ireland
    • Widespread crop failures
  • James I (1603-1625)
    • Many considered him to be a “foreigner” as he was Scottish
    • He was described as possessing little dignity, having ungracious manners, a blundering tongue, and he drooled when he spoke
    • Henry IV of France called him the “wisest fool in Christianity”
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James I (1603-1625)
  • James’ reign was going to be divided up into two main points of contention
    • One was religious and the other was his relationship with Parliament
  • The religious controversy was with the Catholics and the Puritans
    • Neither of these groups had been happy with the Elizabethan Compromise
    • Puritans wanted a more Calvinistic styled church and a new Bible
    • Catholics turned to violence when James refused to lift the restrictions against them
      • Most famous plot was the Gunpowder Plot of 1605
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James I (1603-1625)
  • James was not going to have a good relationship with Parliament either
    • He strongly believed in the divine right of kings
  • England was heavily in debt when he took the throne
    • It continued to increase over the course of his reign
    • Parliament tried to assert its power through control of taxation
    • James refused to cooperate, dissolved Parliament, and collected taxes without their consent
    • He also began selling peerages to the highest bidder in an effort to raise money
      • A new landless title of Baronet was available for £1,095, Baron could be bought for £8,000 and Earl for £10,000
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Charles I
    • (1625-1649)
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Charles I (1625-1649)
  • From the very beginning Charles had issues with Parliament
    • Charles was arrogant and just like his father strongly believed in the divine right of kings
  • The main focus of this conflict was on money
    • Every time Charles tried to get more funds from Parliament, they would respond with either a small sum of money or an outright rejection
    • This frustrated him so much that he dissolved Parliament three times over the course of his reign
    • Instead he was forced to find other ways of collecting money:
      • “Forced loans” from the wealthy
      • Collection of custom duties without Parliamentary approval
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Charles I (1625-1649)
  • In 1628, Parliament issued the Petition of Right
    • This was a list of grievances against the crown in which Parliament prohibited:
      • Taxes without their consent
      • Arbitrary imprisonment
      • The declaration of martial law in peacetime
      • The quartering of soldiers in private houses
  • Charles dismissed Parliament in 1629
    • During this time, Charles pursued a course called “personal rule”
    • The English called it the “Eleven Year Tyranny”
    • Instituted mass collection of the Ship’s Money
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Charles I (1625-1649)
  • Charles finally had to recall Parliament again in 1640
    • The Presbyterians in Scotland began a revolt
    • He needed large amounts of money to put down the revolt
  • Parliament began stripping Charles of much of his power
    • This included abolition of arbitrary courts and any taxes collected by the king without Parliament’s consent
    • It then passed the Triennial Act
      • Parliament must meet at least once every three years
  • In October 1641, a Catholic rebellion broke out in Ireland
    • Many blamed the Catholic Queen Henrietta Maria for this as a ploy to bring Catholicism back to England
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Charles I (1625-1649)
  • In late 1641, a rumor spread that Parliament was going to impeach the Queen on charges of treason
    • Charles responded by bringing 400 troops into London
    • He planned to arrest five Puritan members of the House of Commons on charges of treason
    • However, they had been tipped off and fled to safety
  • Fearing for his own safety, Charles left London
    • Many royalists left London as well to be with the king
  • He attempted to negotiate with Parliament throughout the summer of 1641
    • When that failed, he went to gather enough troops to force Parliament out
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English Civil War (1642-1649)
  • There were two sides to the civil war
    • The Cavaliers
      • These were followers of the king
      • They were primarily members of the nobility and moderate Protestants
    • The Roundheads
      • These were the supporters of Parliament
      • They were called “roundheads” because of their haircuts
      • They were primarily merchants, tradesmen, and farmers
  • First phase of the war (1642-1646)
    • The Cavaliers had the better trained army which allowed them key victories in the beginning
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English Civil War (1642-1649)
  • Rise of the “Independents”
    • Radical Puritans led by Oliver Cromwell
    • Distrusted the king and wanted to bring about religious tolerance
  • New Model Army
    • Roundheads reorganized their army in 1645
    • People were placed in the army based on their skill rather than social rank
    • Many of the Puritans believed that they were doing battle for the Lord
  • This change of strategy led to victories for the Roundheads
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English Civil War (1642-1649)
  • In 1646, Charles surrendered to the Scots
  • Many Puritans wanted to restore Charles to the throne
    • They wanted a Presbyterian state church and attempted negotiations with Charles
    • In the meantime, Charles fled London in 1647
  • He was able to regroup and get enough forces to start the second phase of the war (1648-1649)
    • Cromwell defeated the king in a very short campaign
    • Charles was forced to surrender
  • The big question was: what to do with Charles?
    • While some were upset with Charles’ betrayal, many MPs were still willing to negotiate with him
    • However, the army was not
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English Civil War (1642-1649)
  • Cromwell brought the army into London and then directly into Parliament
    • 45 MPs were arrested as part of “Pride’s Purge”
    • Those who remained made up the “Rump Parliament”
  • Cromwell ordered the trial of the king in January 1649
    • While a majority of the population disliked Charles, they were against the execution of the king
    • Even still, the 59 judges found him guilty
  • On January 30, 1649 Charles was executed
    • He was beheaded at the Palace of Whitehall
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The Commonwealth (1649-1653)
  • After the death of Charles, the Rump Parliament abolished the monarchy and House of Lords
  • Creation of a Commonwealth in May 1649
    • A Council of State was put together to handle foreign and domestic policy
    • Government was set up along the lines of a Calvinistic theocracy
    • Some religious reforms took place but economic problems prevented major changes
  • On April 20, 1653, Cromwell ended the Commonwealth
    • He was dissatisfied with the Parliament, accusing them of not being godly enough
    • “Ye have no more religion than my horse; gold is your God…”
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Protectorate (1653-1658)
  • On December 16, 1653, the Protectorate was established
    • Cromwell was given the title Lord Protector
      • This made him the sole ruler of England
      • Thinly disguised autocracy
    • He instituted the Rule of Major-Generals in August 1655
      • This ended up creating a virtual military state in England
      • It was more absolute than the previous monarchs
  • Cromwell died on September 3, 1658
  • His son Richard became Protectorate
  • By this point, the people of England wanted a king back in power
    • They began negotiating with Charles’ son to take the throne
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